Șef de guvern
- A nu se confunda cu Șef de stat.
Șef de guvern este un termen generic folosit pentru cel mai înalt sau al doilea oficiu guvernamental al ramurii executive al unui stat suveran, un stat federal sau o colonie care se auto-guverneză. Șeful de guvern are cel mai adesea o echipă de politicieni, tehnicieni sau o combinație între aceștia care formează guvernul și cu ajutorul cărora conduce țara zi de zi.
Termenul de șef de guvern este adesea utilizat (cu rare excepții) în mod diferit de noțiunea de șef de stat, e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list. The authority of a head of government, and the relationship between that position and other state institutions (such as a head of state and legislature) varies greatly among Sovereign states, depending largely on the particular constitutional model chosen.
- In a parliamentary system, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the state, and is answerable to the legislature (or only one chamber of it). Although there is often formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter usually acts as a figurehead who may only act as a chief executive, on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
- In presidential republics or absolute monarchies; the head of state, generally, is also the head of government. The relationship between such a head of state and government and the other branches of the state varies, ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution (or other basic laws) of the particular state.
- In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each constitution. A prominent example is the French Fifth Republic (1958–present), where the President appoints the Prime Minister but must choose someone who can get government business through, and enjoy support in, the National Assembly. When the opposition controls the National Assembly (and thus state funding and primary legislation), the President is in effect forced to choose a Prime Minister from the opposition party. In such cases, known as cohabitation, the Prime Minister (with the cabinet) controls domestic policy, with the President's influence largely restricted to foreign affairs.
- 1 Titluri ale diferiților șefi de guvern
- 2 Șefi de guvern în state parlamentare
- 3 Official residence
- 4 Statistici
- 5 See also
- 6 Sources and references
Titluri ale diferiților șefi de guvern[modificare | modificare sursă]
Un titlu comun pentru un șef de guvern este acela de prim-ministru sau acela de premier. This is used as a formal title in many states, but also informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as Minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government (but many other titles are in use, e.g. chancellor and secretary of state). Formally the head of state can also be the head of government as well (ex officio or by ad hoc cumulation, such as a ruling monarch exercising all powers himself) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior (ruling monarch, executive president) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character (constitutional monarch, non-executive president). Various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question.
As political chief[modificare | modificare sursă]
In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following. Some of these titles relate to governments below the national level (e.g. states or provinces).
Alternate English terms & renderings[modificare | modificare sursă]
- Chairman of the Executive Council
- Chief Minister (often sub-national)
- Chief Executive (often sub-national)
- First Minister (often sub-national)
- Premier (from French premier ministre)
- President of the Cabinet
- President of the Council of Ministers
- President of the Council of State
- President of the Executive Council
- President of the Government
- Prime Minister
- State President (used exclusively in South Africa)
Titluri echivalente în diferite limbi[modificare | modificare sursă]
- Bundeskanzler (German)
- In Malaysia, the head of government of the constituent states are expressed in the Malay language (either Ketua Menteri, "chief minister" in the Malaysian states without a monarchy (Malacca, Penang, Sabah and Sarawak), or Menteri Besar "great minister" in the sultanates and other monarchic states).
- Lehendakari (Basque Country)
- Leitender Minister (German, literally 'directing minister')
- Pääministeri (Finnish)
- Statsminister (Scandinavian)
- Taoiseach (Irish)
- Kryeministër (Albanian)
- Bașbakan (Turkish)
- Primeiro-ministro (Portuguese, literally 'first minister')
- Πρωθυπουργός (Greek, transliteration ; Prothipourgos)
- Sultan (Swahili)
- Primer ministro (Spanish)
Under a dominant head of state[modificare | modificare sursă]
In a broader sense, a head of government can be used loosely when referring to various comparable positions under a dominant head of state (especially is the case of ancient or feudal eras, so the term "head of government", in this case, could be considered a contradiction in terms). In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch and holds no more power than the monarch allows. Some such titles are diwan, mahamantri, pradhan, wasir or vizier.
Cazuri de șef de guvern și șef de stat combinate[modificare | modificare sursă]
In some models the head of state and head of government are one and the same. These include:
- President (executive)
- An absolute monarch reigning and ruling without a separate principal minister
- Chief magistrate
- Führer (used in Nazi Germany for Adolf Hitler)
An alternative formula is a single chief political body (e.g. presidium) which collectively leads the government and provides (e.g. by turns) the ceremonial Head of state See Head of state for further explanation of these cases.
Șefi de guvern în state parlamentare[modificare | modificare sursă]
Numire[modificare | modificare sursă]
In many countries, the Head of government is commissioned by the Head of state to form a government, on the basis of the strength of party support in the lower house, in some other states directly elected by parliament. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament; they must resign on becoming ministers.
Official residence[modificare | modificare sursă]
The Head of government is often provided with an official residence, often in the same fashion as heads of state often are. The name of the residence is often used as a metonym or alternate title for 'the government' when the office is politically the highest, e.g. in the UK "Downing Street announced today..."
Well-known official residences of heads of government include:
- 10 Downing Street in London — Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (who also has a country residence, Chequers)
- 7 Race Course Road (Panchavati) in New Delhi — Prime Minister of India
- Catshuis — Prime Minister of the Netherlands
- 24 Sussex Drive in Ottawa — Prime Minister of Canada (who also has a country residence, Harrington Lake)
- Zhongnanhai in Beijing — Premier of the People's Republic of China
- Kantei in Tokyo — Prime Minister of Japan
- Palazzo Chigi in Rome — President of the Council of Ministers of Italy
- Kirribilli House in Sydney; and The Lodge in Canberra — Prime Minister of Australia
- Hôtel Matignon in Paris— Prime Minister of France
- The Lambermont in Brussels — Prime Minister of Belgium
- Palacio de la Moncloa in Madrid — President of the Government of Spain
- Premier House in Wellington — Prime Minister of New Zealand
- Kesäranta in Helsinki — Prime Minister of Finland
- Sager House in Stockholm — Prime Minister of Sweden (who also has a country residence, Harpsund)
Fuller list in the official residence article.
Similarly the Heads of government of (con)federal entities below the level of the sovereign state (often without an actual Head of state, at least under international law) may also be given an official residence, sometimes used as an opportunity to display its aspirations of statehood. E.g. in Belgium:
- Hotel Errera in Brussels — Minister-President of the Flemish community and region
- Élysette in Namur — Minister-President of the Walloon Region
However, Heads of governments' residences are usually far less grand than those (often called palace) of a Head of state (even a merely ceremonial one), unless they combine both roles, as for example:
- Casa Rosada in Buenos Aires — President of the Argentine Nation
- Palácio da Alvorada in Brasília — President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
- The White House (1600 Pennsylvania Avenue) in Washington, D.C. — President of the United States of America
Even the formal representative of the head of state, such as a governor-general, may well be housed in a grander palace-type residence, often with such names as Government House.
Statistici[modificare | modificare sursă]
Actuale recorduri[modificare | modificare sursă]
(as in mid-2011)
- World's longest serving unelected head of government: Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Prime Minister of Bahrain since 1971.
- World's longest serving current monarchy head of government: Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969 ( 23 ani, 3 zile).
- World's longest serving current republican head of government: Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990 ( 31 ani, 178 zile).
See also[modificare | modificare sursă]
- Head of state
- List of current heads of state and government
- European Council
- Chief executive officer and Chief operating officer
- Power behind the throne
- Éminence grise
- Air transports of heads of state and government
- Official Portraits (book)
- World Leaders
Sources and references[modificare | modificare sursă]
- Jean Blondel & Ferdinand Muller-Rommel Cabinets in Western Europe (ISBN 0-333-46209-2)
- WorldStatesmen (click on each country)
- ^ HEADS OF STATE, HEADS OF GOVERNMENT, MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations (2012-10-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
- ^ Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, International Law Commission, United Nations. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
- ^ Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents 1973, International Law Commission, United Nations. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
- ^ Not to be confused with a hotel, as a grand palace is called a hôtel in French.
- ^ H.R.H. the Prime Minister. Mofa.gov.bh (2013-02-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.