Industria automobilistică

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Industria automobilistică este o gamă largă de companii și organizații implicate în proiectarea, dezvoltarea, producerea și comercializarea autovehiculelor.[1] Este unul din cele mai importante sectoare economice după venit. Industria automobilistică nu include industriile dedicate întreținerii automobilelor după livrarea lor la utilizatorul final, cum ar fi atelierele de reparații auto și stațiile de alimentare cu carburanți.

Uzina de automobile Thomas B. Jeffery din Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
Linia de asamblare a Citroënului în 1918
CEO ai companiilor automobilistice majore alături de cancelarul german Angela Merkel la Electromobility Summit 2013 în Berlin. F.r.t.l.: Neumann (Opel), Varin (PSA), Zetsche (Daimler), Wan Gang (China)

Producția mondială de autovehicule[modificare | modificare sursă]

Vezi și: Lista țărilor după producția de autovehicule

Decenii întregi Statele Unite au condus în topul producției mondiale de automobile. În 1929, înainte de Marea depresie, în lume existau 32.028.500 de automobile în uz, iar industria auto din SUA a produs circa 90% din ele. La acel moment SUA avea în medie o mașină la 4,87 persoane.[2] După cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial, SUA deținea circa 3/4 din producția auto mondială. În 1980 SUA a fost depășită de Japonia, dar a redevenit lider în 1994. În 2006, Japonia a întrecut SUA la limită în producția de automobile și a deținut această poziție până în 2009, când China a urcat în top cu 13,8 milioane de unități. Cu un total 18,4 milioane de unități în 2011, China a produs un număr de automobile mai mult decât dublu în comparație cu SUA care a fost a doua cu 8,7 milioane de unități, în timp ce Japonia s-a clasat pe locul trei cu 8,4 milioane de unități.[3]

După an[modificare | modificare sursă]

Producția globală de autovehicule

(mașini și vehicule comerciale)

Am Producție Schimbare Sursa
1997 54.434.000   [4]
1998 52.987.000 -2.7% [4]
1999 56.258.892 6.2% [5]
2000 58.374.162 3.8% [6]
2001 56.304.925 -3.5% [7]
2002 58.994.318 4.8% [8]
2003 60.663.225 2.8% [9]
2004 64.496.220 6.3% [10]
2005 66.482.439 3.1% [11]
2006 69.222.975 4.1% [12]
2007 73.266.061 5.8% [13]
2008 70.520.493 -3.7% [14]
2009 61.791.868 -12.4% [15]
2010 77.857.705 26.0% [16]
2011 79.989.155 3.1% [17]
2012 84.141.209 5.3% [18]


După țară[modificare | modificare sursă]

După producător[modificare | modificare sursă]

Clasamentul producătorilor după producție, 2012[19]

# Grup Total Mașini LCV HCV Heavy Bus
1 Toyota 10,104,424 8,381,968 1,448,107 268,377 5,972
2 GM 9,285,425 6,608,567 2,658,612 7,558 10,688
3 Volkswagen 9,254,742 8,576,964 486,544 169,064 22,170
4 Hyundai 7,126,413 6,761,074 279,579 70,290 15,470
5 Ford 5,595,483 3,123,340 2,394,221 77,922
6 Nissan 4,889,379 3,830,954 1,022,974 35,451
7 Honda 4,110,857 4,078,376 32,481
8 PSA 2,911,764 2,554,059 357,705
9 Suzuki 2,893,602 2,483,721 409,881
10 Renault 2,676,226 2,302,769 373,457
11 Chrysler 2,371,427 656,892 1,702,235 12,300
12 Daimler AG 2,195,152 1,455,650 257,496 450,622 31,384
13 FIAT 2,127,295 1,501,979 498,984 85,513 40,819
14 BMW 2,065,477 2,065,216 261
15 SAIC 1,783,548 1,523,398 190,848 67,805 1,497
16 Tata 1,241,239 744,067 314,399 165,171 17,602
17 Mazda 1,189,283 1,097,661 91,622
18 Dongfeng Motor 1,137,950 539,845 245,641 337,545 14,919
19 Mitsubishi 1,109,731 980,001 127,435 2,295
20 Changan 1,063,721 835,334 166,727 59,978 1,682
21 Geely 922,906 922,906
22 Fuji 753,320 734,959 18,361
23 BAIC 720,828 83,033 285,081 348,659 4,055
24 FAW 706,012 480,443 52,983 168,793 3,793
25 Great Wall 624,426 487,704 136,722
26 Mahindra 606,418 429,101 173,083 3,461 773
27 Isuzu 600,470 32,309 565,617 2,544
28 Chery 563,951 550,565 13,386
29 Avtovaz 553,232 553,232
30 Brilliance 489,770 231,527 231,862 26,381
31 JAC 476,356 200,278 114,864 145,811 15,403
32 BYD 455,444 455,444
33 Chonhqing Lifan 272,657 183,750 24,035 64,872
34 Volvo 234,680 224,000 10,680
35 Proton 162,455 134,934 27,521
36 China National Heavy Duty Truck 127,792 1,224 125,792 776
37 Paccar 125,336 125,336
38 GAZ 125,319 88,899 21,561 14,859
39 Ashok Leyland 117,738 30,776 61,519 25,443
40 Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co. 117,051 117,051
41 GAC Group 114,157 87,408 25,611 1,138
42 Shannxi 86,283 8,044 166 77,808 265
43 Porsche 86,083 86,083
44 Soueast (Fujian) 85,515 81,512 4,003
45 Navistar 83,371 72,005 11,366
46 Xiamen King Long 78,226 36,451 41,775
47 UAZ 70,434 32,469 37,965
48 Tangjun Ou Ling 69,167 16,459 52,708
49 Hebei Zhongxing 63,221 4,955 58,266
50 Sichuan Nanjun 60,743 18,296 41,602 845

OICA[20] defines these entries as follows:

  • Passenger cars are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the transport of passengers, and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.
  • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the carriage of goods. Mass given in tons (metric tons) is used as a limit between light commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. This limit depends on national and professional definitions and varies between 3.5 and 7 tons. Minibuses, derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat and having a maximum mass between 3.5 and 7 tons.
  • Heavy trucks (HCV) are vehicles intended for the carriage of goods. Maximum authorised mass is over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tons) of light commercial vehicles. They include tractor vehicles designed for towing semi-trailers.
  • Buses and coaches are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tones) of light commercial vehicles.

Topul grupurilor de producători auto după volum[modificare | modificare sursă]

Tabelul de mai jos prezintă cele mai mari grupuri de producători de autovehicule din lume, împreună cu mărcile produse de fiecare. Tabelul prezintă situația de la finele anului 2011 conform International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21]

Marcă Țara de origine Ownership Piețe de desfacere
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japonia Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America
Hino Japonia Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America and South America
Lexus Japonia Division South East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
Ranz Republica Populară Chineză Joint-venture China
Scion Statele Unite Division United States, Canada
Toyota Japonia Division Global, except Iran
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
Baojun Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Buick Statele Unite Division United States, Canada, Mexico, China, Israel
Cadillac Statele Unite Division North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea
Chevrolet Statele Unite Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand
GMC Statele Unite Division North America, Middle East(except Israel)
Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
HSV Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Jie Fang Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Opel Germania Subsidiary Europe (except UK), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile
Vauxhall Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary United Kingdom
UzDaewoo Uzbekistan Joint venture Central Asia, Russia
Wuling Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
2. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)
Audi Germania Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Bentley Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global
Bugatti Franța Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italia Subsidiary Global
Ducati Italia Subsidiary Global
MAN Germania Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, India
Porsche Germania Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Scania Suedia Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spania Subsidiary Europe, South America, Africa, Middle East, China, Mexico
Škoda Cehia Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Central America (including Dominican Republic), South America, Northern and western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Volkswagen Germania Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germania Subsidiary Europe, Central America, South America, Australia, China
4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea)
Hyundai Coreea de Sud Division Global, except Mexico
Kia Coreea de Sud Subsidiary Global
5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
Ford Statele Unite Division Global
FPV Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Lincoln Statele Unite Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
Troller Brazilia Subsidiary South America, Africa
6. Nissan ( Japan)
Datsun Japonia Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
Infiniti Hong Kong Subsidiary Global, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
Nissan Japonia Division Global
Venucia Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Abarth Italia Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Alfa Romeo Italia Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan and the Philippines
Chrysler Statele Unite Subsidiary Global, except Europe (excluding UK and Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Dodge Statele Unite Subsidiary Global, except Europe, Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Ferrari Italia Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Fiat Italia Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Fiat Professional Italia Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada
Jeep Statele Unite Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Lancia Italia Subsidiary Europe (except UK and Ireland, Cyprus, Denmark, Norway, Iceland & East Europe)
Maserati Italia Subsidiary Global
Ram Statele Unite Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Middle East, Peru
SRT Statele Unite Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
Zastava Trucks Serbia Subsidiary Europe
Tofaș Turcia Joint Venture Europe
8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën Franța Subsidiary Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)
Peugeot Franța Subsidiary Global, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
9. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura Statele Unite Division United States, Canada, Mexico, China
Everus Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Honda Japonia Division Global
10. Renault ( France)
Dacia România Subsidiary Europe, Middle East, Northern Africa
Renault Franța Division Global, except United States, Canada, Korea, Africa (excluding Northern Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa)
Renault Samsung Coreea de Sud Subsidiary South Korea, Chile
11. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Suzuki Japonia Division Global, except USA, Canada and Korea
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
12. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germania Division Global
MINI Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Division Global
Rolls-Royce Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global
13. Daimler AG ( Germany)
BharatBenz India Division India
Denza Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Freightliner Statele Unite Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Master Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Mercedes-Benz Germania Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japonia Subsidiary Global
Setra Germania Division Europe, Asia, USA
Smart Germania Division Global
Thomas Built Statele Unite Subsidiary North America
Western Star Statele Unite Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand
14. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japonia Division Global, except Korea
15. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japonia Division Global, except Korea
Ralliart Japonia Subsidiary Global, Except Korea
16. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( China)
Fengshen Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Venucia Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
17. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)
Hispano Spania Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global
Land Rover Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division India, Ghana, Italy, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Nigeria, Australia
Tata Daewoo Coreea de Sud Subsidiary South Korea, Pakistan
18. Geely Automobile ( China)
Englon Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Emgrand Republica Populară Chineză Division China, United Kingdom, Turkey
Gleagle Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Geely Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Taiwan, Russia, North Africa, Middle East, South America, South Africa, Australia, Turkey
Maple Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Volvo (Cars) Suedia Subsidiary Global
19. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( China)
BAW Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Foton Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, South America, India
20. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Chana Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Europe
Hafei Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Changhe Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Venezuela
Tiger Truck Statele Unite Subsidiary United States, Canada
21. SAIPA ( Iran)
Pars Khodro Iran Subsidiary Iran
SAIPA Iran Division Iran, Syria
SAIPA Diesel Iran Subsidiary Iran
Zamyad Iran Subsidiary Iran
22. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Chery Republica Populară Chineză Division China, South East Asia, Russia, South Africa, South America, Australia
Qoros Republica Populară Chineză Joint-Venture China, Europe, Israel
Riich Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Rely Republica Populară Chineză Division China
23. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Rusia Division Europe (except United Kingdom, Portugal and Malta), Central Asia
VIS Rusia Division Russia
24. First Automotive Group Corporation ( China)
Besturn Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Freewind Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Haima Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Hongqi Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Jiaxing Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Jie Fang Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Vita Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Xiali Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
25. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japonia Division Global, except Mexico and Korea
26. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( China)
Great Wall Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia, Europe, Middle East
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japonia Division Global, except Brazil and Korea
28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
JAC Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Africa, Brazil
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( China)
Brilliance Republica Populară Chineză Division China, North Africa
Jinbei Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
30. SAIC Motor ( China)
Baojun Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Maxus Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom, Chile, Malaysia
MG Motor Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary China, United Kingdom, South America, Australia
Roewe Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Belarus
Soyat Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Yuejin Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Wuling Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
31. BYD Auto ( China)
BYD Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Taiwan, Russia, United States, Canada
Denza Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia
REVA India Division India
SsangYong Coreea de Sud Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
33. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack Statele Unite Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Australia
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault Trucks Franța Subsidiary Global, except Japan, United States and Canada
UD Trucks Japonia Subsidiary Global
Volvo Trucks Suedia Subsidiary Global
35. Iran Khodro Company ( Iran)
Iran Khodoro Iran Division Middle East,Northern Africa, Russia, Belarus, Central Asia, China, Venezuela
IKCO Diesel Iran Division Middle East, Northern and Western Africa
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Lifan Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Taiwan, Russia, Middle East, South America
37. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)
Lotus Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global
Proton Malaezia Division Southeast Asia, China, Australia, United Kingdom, Middle East
38. Jiangling Motors ( China)
Jiangling Republica Populară Chineză Division China, Europe
39. Fujian Motors Group ( China)
Soueast Republica Populară Chineză Joint-Venture China
King Long Republica Populară Chineză Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, India, North America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand
Xiamen Golden Dragon Republica Populară Chineză Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, South America
Higer Bus Republica Populară Chineză Joint-Venture China,South Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, Eastern Europe, United States, Canada, Central America, South America
40. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Taiwan Subsidiary Taiwan
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group ( China)
Sinotruck Hong Kong Division China
43. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile ( China)
Jiangnan Republica Populară Chineză Division China
44. Paccar Inc. ( United States)
DAF Trucks Olanda Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Kenworth Statele Unite Division North America, Australia
Leyland Trucks Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Peterbilt Statele Unite Division North America
45. GAZ ( Russia)
GAZ Rusia Division Russia, Europe, Central Asia
LiAZ Rusia Subsidiary Russia
Ural Trucks Rusia Division Russia
46. Shaanxi Automobile Group ( China)
Shaanxi Republica Populară Chineză Division China
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)
Qingling Republica Populară Chineză Division China
48. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok Leyland India Division South Asia, Middle East, East Africa
49. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
eStar Statele Unite Division United States, Canada
IC Statele Unite Subsidiary United States, Canada
International Statele Unite Division North America, South America, Russia, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa
??. CNH Industrial N.V. ( the Netherlands)
Defence Vehicles Italia Subsidiary Europe
Heuliez Bus Franța Subsidiary Europe
Iveco Italia Subsidiary Global
Iveco Astra Italia Subsidiary Europe
Iveco Bus Franța Subsidiary Global, except North America
Magirus Germania Subsidiary Global, except North America
??. Oshkosh Corporation ( United States)
Oshkosh Statele Unite Division USA, Canada, China
??. Yulon Motor ( Taiwan)
Luxgen Taiwan Division Taiwan, China, Oman
Tobe Taiwan Division Taiwan
??. Shandong Kaima ( China)
Kaima Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Jubao Republica Populară Chineză Division China
Aofeng Republica Populară Chineză Division China
??. Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group Co Ltd ( China)
Changfeng Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China, Russia, Middle East, Africa
Everus Republica Populară Chineză Joint venture China
Gonow Republica Populară Chineză Subsidiary China
Trumpchi Republica Populară Chineză Division China
??. Micro (cars) ( Sri Lanka)
Micro (cars) Sri Lanka Division Sri Lanka
??. Rongcheng Hawtai Automobile ( China)
Hawtai Republica Populară Chineză Division China
??. Caterpillar Inc. ( United States)
CAT Statele Unite Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand

Referințe și note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ automotive industry”. Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/45050/automotive-industry. Accesat la 12 februarie 2014. 
  2. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles" Popular Science Monthly, November 1929, p. 84.
  3. ^ Production Statistics”. OICA. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/. Accesat la 9 septembrie 2011. 
  4. ^ a b http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
  5. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
  6. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
  7. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
  8. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
  9. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
  10. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
  11. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
  12. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
  13. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
  14. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
  15. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2009-statistics
  16. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2010-statistics/
  17. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2011-statistics/
  18. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  19. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production, Year 2012”. OICA. http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/worldpro2012-modification-ranking.pdf. Accesat la 2 noiembrie 2013. 
  20. ^ Definitions”. OICA. http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/stats-definition1.pdf. 
  21. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers Year 2010” (PDF). OICA. http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ranking-without-china-30-nov-12.pdf. Accesat la 12 august 2011. 

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