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Poster pentru adaptarea filmului din 1960 a povestii lui H. G. Wells

Călătoria în timp este o temă comună în ficțiune și a fost descrisă într-o varietate de medii, cum ar fi literatura, televiziunea, filmul și reclamele.[1][2]

Conceptul călătoriei în timp prin mijloace mecanice a fost popularizat în povestea lui H. G. Wells din 1895, Mașina timpului (The Time Machine).[3][4] În general, povestile despre călătorii în timp se concentrează asupra consecințelor călătoriei în trecut sau în viitor.[3][5][6] Premisa centrală pentru aceste povestiri implică deseori schimbarea istoriei, intenționat sau accidental, și căile prin care modificarea trecutului schimbă viitorul și creează un prezent sau viitor modificat pentru călătorul de timp când se întorc acasă.[3][6] Unele povești se concentrează exclusiv asupra paradoxurilor și timpurilor alternative care vin cu călătoria în timp, mai degrabă decât călătoria în timp.[5] Ele oferă adesea un fel de comentariu social, deoarece călătoria în timp oferă un „efect de distanțare necesar“ care permite științei fictive să abordeze problemele contemporane în moduri metaforice.[7]

Călătoria în timp în ficțiunea modernă este uneori realizată prin distorsiuni de timp și spațiu, care rezultă din teoria științifică a relativității generale.[8] Poveștile din antichitate adesea prezintă călătoria în timp în viitor printr-o alunecare de timp adusă prin călătorii sau somn sau,[necesită citare] în alte cazuri, călătorii în trecut prin mijloace supranaturale, de exemplu aduse de îngeri[9] sau spirite.[4]

Teme de călătorie de timp[modificare | modificare sursă]

Schimbarea trecutului[modificare | modificare sursă]

The idea of changing the past is logically contradictory, and results in a grandfather paradox.[10] Paul J. Nahin, who has written extensively on the topic of time travel in fiction, states that "[e]ven though the consensus today is that the past cannot be changed, science fiction writers have used the idea of changing the past for good story effect".[1]:267 Time travel to the past and precognition without the ability to change events may result in causal loops.[11]

The possibility of characters inadvertently or intentionally changing the past also gave rise to the idea of "time police", people tasked with preventing such changes from occurring by themselves engaging in time travel to rectify such changes.[12]

Viitor alternativ, istorie, termene și dimensiuni[modificare | modificare sursă]

An alternative future or alternate future is a possible future that never comes to pass, typically when someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternative future cannot occur,[13] or when a communication from the future to the past effected a change that alters the future.[1]:165 Alternative histories may exist "side by side", with the time traveller actually arriving at different dimensions as he changes time.[14]

Efectul fluture[modificare | modificare sursă]

The butterfly effect is the notion that small events can have large, widespread consequences. The term describes events observed in chaos theory where a very small change in initial conditions results in vastly different outcomes. The term was coined by mathematician Edward Lorenz years after the phenomenon was first described.[15]

The butterfly effect has found its way into popular imagination. For example, in Ray Bradbury's 1952 novel A Sound of Thunder, the killing of a single insect millions of years in the past drastically changes the world, and in the 2004 film The Butterfly Effect, the protagonist's small changes to their past results in extreme changes.[16]

Comunicare din viitor[modificare | modificare sursă]

In literature, communication from the future as a plot device is encountered in various science fiction and fantasy stories. Forrest J. Ackerman noted in his 1973 anthology of the best fiction of the year that "[t]he theme of getting hold of tomorrow's newspaper is a recurrent one".[17] An early example of this device can be found in the H.G. Wells 1932 short story "The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper",[17][18] which tells the tale of a man who receives such a paper from 40 years in the future. The 1944 film It Happened Tomorrow also employs this device,[17] with the protagonist receiving the next day's newspaper from an elderly colleague (who is possibly a ghost). Ackerman's anthology also highlights a short story by Robert Silverberg, "What We Learned From This Morning's Newspaper".[17] In that story, a block of homeowners wake to discover that on November 22, they have received the New York Times for the coming December 1.[1]:38 As characters learn of future events affecting them through a newspaper delivered a week early, the ultimate effect is that this "so upsets the future that spacetime is destroyed".[1]:165 The television series Early Edition, inspired by the film It Happened Tomorrow,[19] also revolved around a character who daily received the next day's newspaper,[1]:235 and sought to change some event therein forecast to happen.

A newspaper from the future can be a fictional edition of a real newspaper, or an entirely fictional newspaper. John Buchan's novel The Gap in the Curtain, is similarly premised on a group of people being enabled to see, for a moment, an item in Times newspaper from one year in the future. During the Swedish general election of 2006, the Swedish liberal party used election posters which looked like news items, called Framtidens nyheter ("News of the future"), featuring things that Sweden in the future had become what the party wanted.[20]

A communication from the future raises questions about the ability of humans to control their destiny.[1]:165 If the recipient is allowed to presume that the future is malleable, and if the future forecast affects them in some way, then this device serves as a convenient explanation of their motivations. In It Happened Tomorrow, the events that are described in the newspaper do come to pass, and the protagonist's efforts to avoid those events set up circumstances which instead cause them to come about.[necesită citare] By contrast, in Early Edition, the protagonist is able to successfully prevent catastrophes predicted in the newspaper, although if the protagonist does nothing, these catastrophes do come about.[necesită citare]

Where such a device is used, the source of the future news may not be explained, leaving it open to the reader or watcher to imagine that it might be technology, magic, an act of a god etc.[necesită citare] In the H.G. Wells story, the author writes of the newspaper that "apparently it had been delivered not by the postman, but by some other hand".[necesită citare] As in It Happened Tomorrow and Early Edition, no explanation is offered for the source of the future news. Ackerman suggests that "[t]he longer that authors mush on with the tale of... the next-week's-newspaper-now, the more difficult it becomes to pull a new rarebit out of the hat".[17]

Precogniția[modificare | modificare sursă]

Precognition has been explored as a form of time travel in fiction. Author J. B. Priestley wrote of it both in fiction and non-fiction, analysing testimonials of precognition and other "temporal anomalies" in his book Man and Time. His books include time travel to the future through dreaming, which upon waking up results in memories from the future. Such memories, he writes, may also lead to the feeling of déjà vu, that the present events have already been experienced, and are now being re-experienced.[21] Infallible precognition, which describes the future as it truly is, leads to causal loops, a form of which is explored in Newcomb's paradox.[22][23] The film 12 Monkeys heavily deals with themes of predestination and the Cassandra complex, where the protagonist who travels back in time explains that he can't change the past.[11]

Buclă de timp[modificare | modificare sursă]

A "time loop" or "temporal loop" is a plot device in which periods of time are repeated and re-experienced by the characters, and there is often some hope of breaking out of the cycle of repetition.[24] Time loops are sometimes referred to as causal loops,[11][24] but these two concepts are distinct. Although similar, causal loops are unchanging and self-originating, whereas time loops are constantly resetting. In a time loop when a certain condition is met, such as a death of a character or a clock reaching a certain time, the loop starts again, with one or more characters retaining the memories from the previous loop.[25] Stories with time loops commonly center on the character learning from each successive loop through time.[24]

Paradox timpul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Pentru informații suplimentare, vezi Paradox timpul

Many time travel works explore the topic of disrupting causality leading to time paradoxes. One of the most commonly referred to in time travel literature is known as the grandfather paradox. Many works of fiction explore what would happen if a time traveller went back in time and changed the past, for example if they killed their own grandparents.[26]

Alunecare timp[modificare | modificare sursă]

A time slip is a plot device used in fantasy and science fiction in which a person, or group of people, seem to travel through time by unknown means for a period of time.[27][28] The idea of a time slip has been utilized by a number of science fiction and fantasy writers popularized at the end of the 19th century by Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, having considerable influence on later writers.[29] This is one of the main plot devices of time travel stories, the other being a time machine. The difference is that in time slip stories, the protagonist typically has no control and no understanding of the process (which is often never explained at all) and is either left marooned in a past time and must make the best of it, or is eventually returned by a process as unpredictable and uncontrolled.[30] The plot device is also popular in children's literature.[31][32]

Time slips featuring a child and a realistic depiction of an earlier period enjoyed a vogue in the UK in the mid-20th century. Successful examples include Alison Uttley's A Traveller in Time (1939) going back to the time of Mary, Queen of Scots; Philippa Pearce's Tom's Midnight Garden (1958) returning to the 1880s and 1890s; Barbara Sleigh's Jessamy (1967) and Penelope Farmer's Charlotte Sometimes, both slipping back to the period of the First World War; Ruth Park's Playing Beatie Bow (1980), where the slip in Sydney, Australia, is to the squalor of 1873; and Helen Cresswell's Moondial, where three times periods are involved (1988, also televised).[33]Format:Refimprove inline

Timp de turism[modificare | modificare sursă]

A "distinct subgenre" of stories explore the possibility that time travel might be used as a means of tourism,[4] with travelers curious to visit periods or events such as the Victorian Era, Crucifixion of Christ, or some point where dinosaurs could be watched (or hunted by big game hunters), or to meet historical figures such as Abraham Lincoln or Ludwig van Beethoven.[12] This theme can be addressed from two directions. An early example of present-day tourists travelling back to the past is Ray Bradbury's A Sound of Thunder (1952), in which the protagonists are big game hunters who travel to the distant past to hunt dinosaurs.[4] An early example of the other type, in which tourists from the future visit our present, is Catherine L. Moore and Henry Kuttner's Vintage Season (1946), a story which was selected for inclusion in Volume Two of The Science Fiction Hall of Fame collection.[34]

Timp de război[modificare | modificare sursă]

The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction describes a time war as a fictional war that is "fought across time, usually with each side knowingly using time travel ... in an attempt to establish the ascendancy of one or another version of history". Time wars are also known as "change wars" and "temporal wars".[35]

P. Nahin compiles a variety of examples of fictional works that raise issues framed as arising in a time war:

„Consider this passage from The Fall of Chronopolis (Bayley), a novel about a "time-war." Just after the detection of temporal invaders, we read of them that "They had come in from the future at high speed, too fast for defensive time-blocks to be set up, and had only been detected by ground-based stations deep in historical territory. If the target was to alter past events—the usual strategy in a time-war—then the empire's chronocontinuity would be significantly interfered with." And in Time of the Fox (Costello), American physicists battle KGB physicists in a war of time travelers in the past, each side attempting to change history to its advantage. In this novel the history changers isolate themselves from all the alterations taking place outside of their Time Lab, and they compare their stored historical records with those of external libraries. That allows the staff historian to adjust for each new round of changes. As the historian explains, outside of the Time Lab "History might change, but here [in the Time Lab] the past lives on." In a novel of a galaxy-wide confrontation between humans and androidsTime and Again (Simak)—the use of time travel to alter history is central: "A war in time ... would reach back to win its battles. It would strike at points in time and space which would not even know that there was a war. It could, logically, go back to the silver mines of Athens, to the horse and chariot of Thut- mosis III, to the sailing of Columbus. ... It would twist the fabric of the past."[1]:267

Vezi si[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Nahin, Paul J. (). Time Machines: Time Travel in Physics, Metaphysics, and Science Fiction [Mașini timp: Călătoria în timp în fizică, metafizică și science fiction] (în limba engleză) (ed. 2-a). Springer. ISBN 9780387985718.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  2. ^ Nahin, Paul J. (). Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel [Călătoria în timp: Un ghid al scriitorului pentru știința reală a călătoriei plauzibile în timp] (în limba engleză). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. ix. ISBN 1421401207.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  3. ^ a b c Sterling, Bruce (). „Science fiction - Time travel” [Științifico-fantastică - Călătoria în timp] (în limba engleză). Encyclopædia Britannica. Accesat în . 
  4. ^ a b c d Kuiper, Kathleen (). Prose: Literary Terms and Concepts [Proză: termeni și concepte literare] (în limba engleză) (ed. 1-a). Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 63–64. ISBN 1615304940.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  5. ^ a b Sterling, Bruce (). „Science fiction - Time travel” [Științifico-fantastică - Călătoria în timp] (în limba engleză). Encyclopædia Britannica. Accesat în . 
  6. ^ a b Alison Flood (). „Time travel in fiction: why authors return to it time and time again” [Călătoria în timp în ficțiune: de ce autorii revin din când în când] (în limba engleză). The Guardian. Accesat în . 
  7. ^ Redmond, Sean (). Liquid Metal: the Science Fiction Film Reader [Metal lichid: Cititor de film științifico-fantastică.] (în limba engleză). Columbia University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0231501846. Accesat în .  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  8. ^ Stephen Hawking (). „Space and Time Warps” [Spațiu și timp urzelile] (în limba engleză). Accesat în . 
  9. ^ Alkon, Paul K. (). Origins of Futuristic Fiction [Originile ficțiunii futuriste] (în limba engleză). University of Georgia Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 082030932X.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  10. ^ Norman Swartz (). „Time Travel: Visiting the Past” [Călătoria în timp: Vizitarea trecut] (în limba engleză). SFU.ca. Accesat în . 
  11. ^ a b c Klosterman, Chuck (). Eating the Dinosaur [Mananca dinozaur] (în limba engleză) (ed. 1-a). Scribner. pp. 60–62. ISBN 9781439168486.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  12. ^ a b Stableford, Brian (). Science Fact and Science Fiction: An Encyclopedia [Știință fapt și științifico-fantastică: O enciclopedie] (în limba engleză). Routledge. p. 534. ISBN 0415974607.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  13. ^ Prucher, Jeffrey; Wolfe, Gene (). Brave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction [Cuvinte curajoase noi: Dicționarul Oxford al științifico-fantastică] (în limba engleză). Oxford University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9780195305678. Accesat în .  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  14. ^ „Journeys in Space and Time” [Călătorii în spațiu și timp]. Cosmos: Călătorie în Univers. Episodul 8 (în limba engleză). . Eveniment la marca 36 minute. PBS. 
  15. ^ Hilborn, Robert C. (aprilie 2004). „Sea gulls, butterflies, and grasshoppers: A brief history of the butterfly effect in nonlinear dynamics” [Pescăruși, fluturi, și lăcuste: O scurtă istorie a efectului de fluture în dinamica neliniară]. American Journal of Physics (în limba engleză). 72 (4): 425–427. Bibcode:2004AmJPh..72..425H. doi:10.1119/1.1636492. 
  16. ^ Peter Dizikes (), „The meaning of the butterfly” [Înțelesul fluture], Boston Globe (în limba engleză), accesat în  
  17. ^ a b c d e Forrest J. Ackerman, ed., Best Science Fiction for 1973 (1973), p. 36.
  18. ^ „The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper” [Povestea ciudată a ziarului lui Brownlow] (în limba engleză). Gutenberg.net.au. . Accesat în . 
  19. ^ Young, R.G. (). The Encyclopedia of Fantastic Film: Ali Baba to Zombies [Enciclopedia filmului fantastic: Ali Baba la zombi] (în limba engleză). Applause. p. 318. ISBN 1557832692.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  20. ^ Gunnar Jonsson (). „Fp satsar på löpsedlar som valaffischer” [FP se bazează pe facturi ca postere electorale] (în limba suedeză). Dagens nyheter. Accesat în . 
  21. ^ Price, Katy (decembrie 2014). „Testimonies of precognition and encounters with psychiatry in letters to J. B. Priestley” [Mărturii de precogniția și întâlniri cu psihiatria în scrisorile lui J. B. Priestley]. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (în limba engleză). 48: 103–111. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2014.07.006. PMID 25176614. 
  22. ^ Craig, William Lane (octombrie 1987). „Divine Foreknowledge and Newcomb's Paradox” [Preștiința divină și paradoxul lui Newcomb]. Philosophia (în limba engleză). 17 (3): 331–350. doi:10.1007/BF02455055. Accesat în . 
  23. ^ Dummett, Michael (). The Seas of Language (în limba engleză) (ed. 1-a). Clarendon Press. pp. 356, 370–375. ISBN 9780198240112.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  24. ^ a b c Chelsea Quinn Yarbro. „Time Loop” [Buclă de timp] (în limba engleză). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Accesat în . 
  25. ^ Jones, Matthew; Ormrod, Joan (). Time Travel in Popular Media: Essays on Film, Television, Literature and Video Games [Timp de călătorie în mass-media populare: Eseuri pe film, televiziune, literatură și jocuri video] (în limba engleză). McFarland & Company. p. 207. ISBN 0786478071. 
  26. ^ Langford, David. „Themes : Time Paradoxes : SFE : Science Fiction Encyclopedia” [Temele : Paradoxuri de timp : EȘF : Enciclopedie științifico-fantastică] (în limba engleză). Sf-encyclopedia.com. Accesat în . 
  27. ^ Charlie Jane Anders (). „Timeslip romance” [Timp de alunecare dragoste]. io9 (în limba engleză). Accesat în . 
  28. ^ Palmer, Christopher (). Philip K. Dick: Exhilaration and Terror of the Postmodern [Philip K. Dick: Bucuria și teroarea postmodernei] (în limba engleză) (ed. retipărire). Liverpool University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780853236184. Accesat în .  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  29. ^ James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (). The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature [Companion Cambridge pentru literatura de fantezie] (în limba engleză). Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9781107493735. Accesat în .  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  30. ^ Schweitzer, Darrell (). The Fantastic Horizon: Essays and Reviews [Orizont fantastic: Eseuri și recenzii] (în limba engleză) (ed. 1-a). Borgo Press. p. 112. ISBN 9781434403209. Accesat în .  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  31. ^ Lucas, Ann Lawson (). The Presence of the Past in Children's Literature [Prezența trecutului în literatura pentru copii] (în limba engleză). Praeger. p. 113. ISBN 9780313324833.  Parametru necunoscut |locație= ignorat (ajutor)
  32. ^ Cosslett, Tess (). "History from Below": Time-Slip Narratives and National Identity” [„Istoria de dedesubt”: Povestiri în timp și identitate națională]. The Lion and the Unicorn (în limba engleză). 26 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1353/uni.2002.0017. ISSN 1080-6563. Accesat în . 
  33. ^ „Timeslip in Children's Fiction (121 books)” [Alunecare în ficțiune pentru copii (121 cărți)] (în limba engleză). Goodreads. . Accesat în . 
  34. ^ "Introduction" („Introducere”), Ben Bova, The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume Two (Sala de științifico-fantastică de faima, volumul doi), New York: Doubleday, 1973, pp. ix–xi. Identic în volume două A și două B.
  35. ^ Langford, David. „Changewar” [Schimbați războiul]. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (în limba engleză). Accesat în . 

Lectură suplimentară[modificare | modificare sursă]

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

[[Categorie:Călătoria în timp]] [[Categorie:Istoria ficțiunii]] [[Categorie:Teme science fiction]] [[Categorie:Călătoria în timp în ficțiune]]