Operațiunea Overlord

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Operațiunea Overlord
Parte a Frontului de Vest din cel de-Al Doilea Război Mondial
NormandySupply edit.jpg
Debarcarea proviziilor pe plaja Omaha
Informații generale
Perioadă 6 iunie – 25 august 1944
Locație Normandia, Franța
49°20′00″N 0°34′00″W / 49.33333°N 0.56667°V / 49.33333; -0.56667
Rezultat victorie decisivă a Aliaților
Beligeranți
Aliații de pe Frontul de Vest

 Statele Unite
 Regatul Unit
 Canada
Forțele Franceze Libere Forțele Franceze Libere
Polonia Polonia
Cehoslovacia Cehoslovacia
 Australia
 Noua Zeelandă
 Olanda
Belgia Forțele Belgiene Libere
Grecia Grecia
Luxemburg Luxemburg[nb 1]

 Germania Nazistă
Conducători
Statele Unite Dwight Eisenhower
(Supreme Allied Commander)
Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Arthur Tedder (Deputy Supreme Allied Commander)
Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Bernard Montgomery (Ground Forces Commander in Chief)
Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Trafford Leigh-Mallory (Air Commander in Chief)
Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord Bertram Ramsay (Naval Commander in Chief)
Germania Nazistă Gerd von Rundstedt (Oberbefehlshaber West)
Germania Nazistă Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B)
Efective
1,452,000 (by 25 July)[nb 2]
2,052,299 (by 21 August, in northern France alone)[nb 3]
380,000 (by 23 July)[nb 4] – 1,000,000+[nb 5]
2,200[4] – ~2,300 tanks and assault guns[5]
Pierderi
226,386 casualties[nb 6]

[nb 7]
4,101 planes[7]
~4,000 tanks[nb 8]

209,875[nb 9] – 450,000 casualties[nb 10]

2,127 planes[9]
~2,200 tanks and assault guns[nb 11]

Operațiunea Overlord[10] a fost numele de cod al Bătăliei pentru Normandia, operațiune care a constat într-o invazie a Aliaților asupra Europei occidentale ocupate de Germania nazistă. Operațiunea a început la 6 iunie 1944 cu Debarcarea din Normandia (Operațiunea Neptun, cunoscută mai ales ca Ziua-Z).

Referințe și note[modificare | modificare sursă]

Note de subsol[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ Câțiva soldați luxemburghezi au fost incorporați în "Commando Kieffer" care era parte a Forțelor Franceze Libere.[1] Alți soldați luxemburghezi au fost incorporați în "Brigada Piron" care era parte a Forțelor Belgiene Libere.
  2. ^ "On 25 July there were 812,000 US soldiers and 640,000 British in Normandy".[2]
  3. ^ "By 21 August, the Allies had landed 2,052,299 men in Normandy". [3][necesită citare]
  4. ^ "When Operation Cobra was launched, the Germans had brought to Normandy about 410,000 men in divisions and non-divisional combat units. If this is multiplied by 1.19 we arrive at approximately 490,000 soldiers. However, until 23 July, casualties amounted to 116,863, while only 10,078 replacements had arrived"[2].
  5. ^ Shulman states that the Wehrmacht committed well over 1 million men to the Normandy Campaign.[4]
  6. ^ This is the total number of casualties suffered by the Allied forces up to the end of August. The Allied forces suffered 36,976 killed, 153,475 wounded and 19,221 missing. Split between the Army Groups: the Anglo-Canadian Army Group suffered 16,138 killed, 58,594 wounded and 9,093 missing for a total of 83,825 casualties. The American Army Group suffered 20,838 killed, 94,881 wounded and 10,128 missing for a total of 125,847 casualties.[6]
  7. ^ To these numbers should also be added the losses of the allied airforces operating. The allied airforces made 480,317 sorties in direct connection to the operation with the loss of 4,101 planes and the lives of 16,696 crewmen.[7]
  8. ^ Approximately 4000 Allied tanks was destroyed, of which 2000 were fighting in American units.[8]
  9. ^ Tamelander states that the German army committed 600,000 men to Normandy and 230,000 to Southern France during the period between 1 June and 31 July. Of these forces stationed in France, 288,875 men were lost, a figure that breaks down to 23,019 dead, 67,240 wounded, and 198,616 missing. Tamelander notes that the number of missing corresponds to the number of men reported captured by the Allied forces during the fighting in France and as these figures also include losses from the fighting in Southern France as well as from the following retreat, he suggests roughly 79,000 men should be deducted from this total to give an accurate figure for the Normandy campaign. Total German losses for Normandy thus reach 210,000 men and Tamelander points out that this figure corresponds to the reported losses that previous to Operation Dragoon were 158,930, which together with the losses inflicted by the Falaise pocket reach approximately 210,000 men.[9]
  10. ^ Shulman claims 240,000 men of the German army had been killed or wounded during the Normandy campaign and a further 210,000 had been taken prisoner.[4] Wilmot supports the figure of 210,000 prisoners being taken during the "10 week campaign".[5]
  11. ^ Wilmot quotes Günther Blumentritt, von Rundstedt's Chief-of-Staff, who states that around 2,300 tanks and assault guns had been committed to the battle in Normandy and "only 100 to 120 were brought back across the Seine."[5]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ Raths 2008, pp. 357,358.
  2. ^ a b Zetterling 2000, p. 32.
  3. ^ Zetterling 2000, p. 341.
  4. ^ a b c Shulman, p. 192
  5. ^ a b c Wilmot 1997, p. 434.
  6. ^ Ellis, Allen & Warhurst 2004, p. 493.
  7. ^ a b Tamelander & Zetterling 2003, p. 341.
  8. ^ Tamelander & Zetterling 2003, p. 342.
  9. ^ a b Tamelander & Zetterling 2003, pp. 342–343.
  10. ^ Churchill 1951, p. 642.

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]