Lista celor mai mari imperii

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Un imperiu implică extinderea suveranității al unui stat asupra unor teritorii externe. De exemplu, Imperiul spaniol și apoi Imperiul Britanic s-au numit "imperiile in care soarele nu apune niciodată", din cauza teritoriilor și a posesiunilor detinute din întreaga lume. Acest articol oferă o listă a celor mai mari imperii din istoria lumii.


Imperiu Suprafața max. (milioane km2) Suprafața max. (milioane mi2)  % din suprafața lumii Era Populația max. (milioane)  % din populația lumii
11a 0 a -9999 0 0
Imperiul Britanic 33,7[1] 13,01 22,63% 1922[1] 458,0 (în 1938)[2] 20,00% (458 milioane din 2,295 miliarde în 1938)[2]
Imperiul Mongol 24.0[3] 09,27 16,11% 1279[3] 110,0 (în secolul al 13-lea)[4] 25.60% (110.0 milioane din 429 milioane[5] in the 13th century)
Imperiul Rus 23,7 09,15 15,31% 1866 176,4 în 1913 09,80% (176,4 milioane din 1,791 miliarde[6] în 1913)
Imperiul Spaniol 20,0 07,72 13,43% 1740–1790 (aprox.)[7] 68,2[8] 12.30% (68,2 milioane din 556 milioane[6] in the 17th century)
Dinastia Qing 14.7 05.68 09.87% 1790[3][9] 432,2 in 1851.[10] 36,60% (381,0 milioane din 1,041 miliarde în 1820)[6]
Dinastia Yuan 14,0 05,41 09,40% 1310[9] 59,8 în 1291.[11][12] 17.10% (59.8 milioane din 350 milioane în 1290)
Califatul Omeiad 13.3 05.13 08.92% 661–750 62.0 (în secolul al 7-lea) 28.80% (62,0 milioane din 208 milioane în secolul al 7-lea)
Imperiul Colonial Francez 13,0 05,02 08,73% 1938[7] 112,9 în 1938 05,10% (112.9 milioane din 2,295 miliarde în 1938)
Califatul Abbasid 11,1 04,29 07,45% 750–1258[9] 50,0 (în 850) 20,00% (50,0 milioane din 250 milioane în 850)[6]
Imperiul Portughez 10,4 04,02 06,98% 1815[7]
Califatul Rașidun 09,0 03,48 06,04% 654[9][13] 40,3 19,10% (40,3 milioane din 210 milioane în secolul al 7-lea)
Imperiul Brazilian 08,5 03,28 05,71% 1880 9.9 (în 1872)[14]
Imperiul Ahemenid 08,0 03,08 10,72% 500 î.Hr. 50,0 (în 480 î.Hr.)[15] 17.0% (17.0 million out of 100.0 million in c. 500 BC)[16] in 480 BC)[17]
Imperiul Japonez 07,4 02,86 04,97% 1942[7] 134,8 în 1938 05,90% (134,8 milioane din 2,295 miliarde[6] în 1938)
Imperiul Roman 06,5 02,51 04,36% 117[18] 65.0 to 88.0 (in 2nd century AD)[19][20][21]
Dinastia Ming 06.5 02.51 04.36% 1450[3][9] 110.0 in 1600.[22][23] 28.80% (160.0 million out of 556.2 million in 1600)[6]
Dinastia Han 06.5 02.51 04.36% 100[24] 74.0 in 2[11][25] 26.00% (59.6 million out of 230 million[6] in 2 AD)
Germania Nazistă 06.4 02.47 04.30% 1942 75.4 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938 [necesită citare]
Kaganatul Göktürk 06.0 02.32 04.03% 557[3][24]
Imperiul Maurya 06.0 - 4.03% BC 250[3] 68.0 in the 2nd century BC 43.30% (68.0 million out of 150 million in the 2nd century BC[26])
Hoarda de Aur 06.0 02.32 04.03% 1310[3][9]
Dinastia Tang 5.4 2.08 02.7% 715[27] 50.0 (in the 8th century) 23.80% (50.0 million out of 210 million in the 8th century AD)[16]
Imperiul Macedonian 05,2 02,01 03,49% BC 323[3][28]
Imperiul Otoman 05,2 02,01 03,49% 1683[3][9] 39,0 (în secolul al 17-lea) 07,10% (39,0 milioane din 556 milioane[6] în secolul al 17-lea)
Imperiul Mughal 05.0 01.93 02.69% 1690[3][9] 175.0 in 1700 29.20% (175.0 million out of 600 million[29] in 1700)
Northern Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia 05.0 01.93 03.36% 1550[9]
Primul Imperiu Mexican 04.9 01.89 03.29% 1822[necesită citare]
Dinastia Xin 04.7 01.82 03.16% 10[24]
Imperiul Tibetan 04.6 01.78 03.09% 800[30] 25.0 8.333%
Imperiul Pala 04.6 01.78 03.09% 850 24.00% (60.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[6]
Imperiul Timurid 04.4 01.70 02.95% 1405[3][9]
Cslifatul Fatimid 04.1 01.58 02.75% 969[3][9]
Imperiul Xiongnu 04.03 01.56 02.71% BC 176[31]
Imperiul Hun 04.0 01.54 02.69% 441[24]
Hephtalite Empire 04.0 01.54 02.69% 490[24]
Eastern Turks Khanate 04.0 01.54 02.69% 624[24]
Afsharid Dynasty 04.0 01.54 02.69% 1747[necesită citare]
Western Turks Khanate 04.0 01.54 02.69% 630[24]
Rouran Khaganate Juan-juan 04.0 01.54 02.69% 405[3][24]
Great Seljuq Empire 03.9 01.51 02.62% 1080[3][9]
Imperiul Italian 03.8 01.47 02.55% 1940[necesită citare] 51.9 in 1938 02.30% (51.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)
Imperiul Kushan 03.8 01.47 02.55% 200[24] 19.00% (42.37 million out of 223 million in 140)[6]
Ilkhanate 03.75 01.45 02.52% 1310[3][9]
Imperiul Olandez 03.7 01.43 02.48% 1940[necesită citare] 60.0 in 1940. 03.50% (60.0 million out of 1.700 billion in 1907)
Chola Dynasty, Tamizhan Kingdom 03.6 01.39 02.42% 1050[32][33]
Khwarazmian Empire 03.6 01.39 02.42% 1218[9]
Hanatul Chagatai 03.5 01.35 02.35% 1310 or 1350[3][9]
Safavid Dynasty 03.5 01.35 02.35% 1512[necesită citare]
Imperiul Colonial German 03.5 01.35 02.35% 1914[necesită citare] 64.9 in 1914 03.70% (64.9 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
Western Jin Dynasty 03.5 01.35 02.35% 300[24] 48.0 in 1195.[11][34]
Shaybanid Uzbek Dynasty 03.5 01.35 02.35% 1510[9]
Imperiul Bizantin 03.5 01.35 02.35% 555[24]
Northern Song Dynasty 03.5 01.35 02.35% 1100[3][9] 123.0 in 1103[11][35] 22.00% (59.0 million out of 268 million in 1000)[6]
Imperiul Sasanid 03.5 01.35 02.35% 550[3] 25.0 (in the 7th century AD) 12.00% (25.0 million out of 210 million[16] in the 7th century AD)
Imperiul Ghaznavid 03.4 01.31 02.28% 1029[3][9]
Almoravid dynasty, Morocco 03.3 01.27 02.22% 1147[9]
Tughlaq Dynasty 03.2 01.24 02.15% 1320[9] 18.91% (70.0 million out of 370 million in 1330)[6]
Ghurids Sultanate 03.2 01.24 02.15% 1200[9]
Parthian Empire 03.1 01.08 01.88% 1[3][28]
Median Empire 03.1 01.08 01.88% BC 585[3][28]
Sui Dynasty 03.1 01.20 02.08% 610[9] 53.0 in 606[11][36]
Uyghur Khaganate 03.1 01.20 02.08% 800[3][9]
Imperiul Seleucid 03.0 01.51 02.62% BC 301[3][28]
Hanatul Kazar 03.0 01.16 02.01% 850[3]
Kalmar Union 03.0 01.16 02.01% 1397[necesită citare]
Rusia Kieveană 02.1 00.81 01.41% 1000[3][9]
Kara-Khanid Khanate 03.0 01.16 02.01% 1025[9]
Qajar Dynasty 03.0 01.16 02.01% 1796[necesită citare]
Danish colonial empire 03.0 01.16 02.01% 1800[necesită citare]
Grand Duchy of Moscow 03.0 01.16 02.01% 1505[necesită citare]
Samanid Dynasty 02.85 01.10 01.91% 928[3][9]
Maratha Empire 02.8 00.97 01.68% 1760[3]
Qin Dynasty 02.8 01.08 01.88% BC 206[24]
Eastern Jin Dynasty 02.8 01.08 01.88% 347[24]
Liu Song Dynasty 02.8 01.08 01.88% 420[24]
Khilji Dynasty 02.7 01.04 01.81% 1312 or 1320[3][9]
Ayyubid Caliphate 02.0 01.04 00.77% 1190[3]
Majapahit Empire 02.7 01.04 01.81% 1389[24]
Liao Dynasty 02.6 01.00 01.75% 947[3][9]
Indo-Greek Yavana Kingdom 02.5 00.97 01.68% BC 150[24]
Bactrian Empire 02.5 00.97 01.68% BC 184[24]
Later Zhao Dynasty 02.5 00.97 01.68% 329[24]
Belgian Empire 02.5 00.97 01.68% 1914[necesită citare]
Kara-Khitan Khanate Western Liao 02.5 00.97 01.68% 1210[3]
Jurchen Jīn Dynasty 02.3 00.89 01.54% 1126[3][9]
Southern Qi Dynasty 02.3 00.89 01.54% 502[24]
Gupta Empire 02.2 01.05 03.9% 400[3] 26.36% (58.0 million out of 220 million in 400 AD)[2]
Southern Song Dynasty 02.1 00.81 01.41% 1127[9] 73.0 in 1193.[11][37]
Bahriyya Mamluks 02.1 00.81 01.41% 1300[9]
Burjiyya Mamluks 02.1 00.81 01.41% 1400[3]
First French Empire 02.1 00.81 01.41% 1813[9]
Wei Dynasty 02.0 00.77 01.34% 263[24]
Earlier Zhao Dynasty 02.0 00.77 01.34% 316[24] 64 in 156[11][38]
Former Qin Dynasty 02.0 00.77 01.34% 376[24]
Western Roman Empire 02.0 00.77 01.34% 395[24]
Northern Wei Dynasty 02.0 00.77 01.34% 450[24]
Saffarid dynasty 02.0 00.77 01.34% 900[necesită citare]
Almohad dynasty, Morocco 02.0 00.77 01.34% 1200[3]
Satavahana Empire 02.0 00.77 01.34% 90[24]
Inca Empire 02.0 00.77 01.34% 1527[3][9]
Second Mexican Empire 02.0 00.77 01.34% 1864
Gurjara Pratihara 01.8 00.69 01.21% 860[9]
Sibir Khanate 01.8 00.69 01.21% 1520[9]
Rashtrakuta Dynasty 01.7 00.66 01.41% 805[necesită citare]
Buyid Sultanate 01.6 00.62 01.07% 980[3][9]
Mamluk Sultanate 01.6 00.62 01.07% 1228[9]
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 01.5 00.58 01.01% 50[24]
Wu Dynasty 01.5 00.58 01.01% 221[24]
Northern Zhou Dynasty 01.5 00.58 01.01% 577[24]
Nanda Dynasty 01.5 00.58 01.01% BC 350 or 321[24][39]
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 01.5 00.58 01.01% BC 100[28]
Tulunids Emirate 01.5 00.58 01.01% 900[24]
Idrisid dynasty, Morocco 01.5 00.58 01.01% 828[3]
Suri Dynasty 01.5 00.58 01.01% 1545[3][9]
Neo-Assyrian Empire 01.4 00.54 00.940% BC 670[3][28]
Songhai Empire 01.4 00.54 00.940% 1500[40]
Empire of Harsha 01.35 00.52 00.906% 625 or 648[3][9]
Liang Dynasty 01.3 00.50 00.873% 502 or 549[3][24]
Western Wei Dynasty 01.3 00.50 00.873% 557[24]
Later Liang Dynasty 01.3 00.50 00.873% 923[9]
Later Tang Dynasty 01.3 00.50 00.873% 923[9]
Mali Empire 01.29 00.50 00.866% 1312[41] 10.00% (45.0 million out of 450 million[42] in the mid-15th century)
Shang Dynasty 01.25 00.48 00.839% BC 1122[3][28]
Western Zhou Dynasty 01.25 00.48 00.839% BC 1122[28]
Aksumite Empire 01.25 00.48 00.839% 350[3]
Khmer Empire 01.2 00.46 00.806% 1150[3][9] 4.0 in 1150 1.333%
Carolingian Dynasty, Francia 01.2 00.46 00.806% 814[3][9]
Srivijaya Empire 01.2 00.46 00.806% 1200[3]
Sunga Empire 01.2 00.46 00.806% BC 150[3]
Kingdom of Kush 01.2 00.46 00.806% BC 700[3]
Thai Empire 01.12 00.43 00.752% 1782[necesită citare]
Chalukya Dynasty 01.1 00.42 00.739% 636[necesită citare]
Swedish Empire 01.1 00.42 00.739% 1658[necesită citare]
Lodhi Dynasty 01.1 00.42 00.739% 1517[necesită citare]
Polish-Lithuanian Empire 01.0[43] 00.39 00.671% 1619[44][45] ca. 12.0 (in 1619) 02.07% to 02.41% (avg. 02.2%)[46]
Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt 01.0 00.39 00.671% BC 1450[28]
New Kingdom 01.0 00.39 00.671% BC 1300[3][28]
Ptolemaic Dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% BC 301[28]
Eastern Wei Dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% 550[24]
Northern Qi Dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% 550[24]
Tahirid dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% 800[9]
Kalachuri Dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% 1050[3][9]
Holy Roman Empire 01.0 00.39 00.671% 1050[9]
Western Xia Dynasty 01.0 00.39 00.671% 1100[3]
Western Chalukya Empire 01.0 00.39 00.671% 1121[necesită citare]
Avars Empire 01.0 00.39 00.671% 600[24]
Kanem Empire 01.0 00.39 00.671% 1200[9]
Bruneian Empire 00.95 00.37 00.653% 1524 AD[3][28]
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty 00.9 00.35 00.604% BC 10[28]
Konbaung Dynasty, Burma 00.9 00.35 00.604% 1800 AD[necesită citare]
Volga Bulgars Khanate 00.9 00.35 00.604% 1100[3][9]
Akkadian Empire 00.8 00.31 00.537% BC 2250[28]
Later Jin Dynasty 00.8 00.31 00.537% 936[9]
Ghana Empire 00.8 00.31 00.537% 1067[24]
Pagan Kingdom 00.8 00.31 00.537% 1200[9]
Western Satraps Dynasty 00.8 00.31 00.537% 100[24]
Himyarite Kingdom 00.8 00.31 00.537% 400 AD[28]
Balhae Kingdom 00.8 00.31 00.537% 830[3]
Khanate of Kazan 00.7 00.27 00.470% 1540[9]
Merovingian Dynasty, Francia 00.7 00.27 00.470% 558[9]
Bulgarian Empire 00.7 00.27 00.470% 900[necesită citare]
Shu Dynasty 00.7 00.27 00.470% 221[24]
Yadava Gauli Kingdom 00.7 00.27 00.470% 1250[9]
Paramara Dynasty 00.7 00.27 00.470% 1050[24]
Kingdom of Dali 00.7 00.27 00.470% 1200[necesită citare]
Vijayanagara Empire 00.7 00.27 00.470% 1529[necesită citare] 05.00% (25.0 million out of 500 million[6] in the 16th century)
Kingdom of Nanzhao 00.7 00.27 00.470% 830[9]
Austro-Hungarian Empire 00.676615 00.26 00.454% 1867–1918 52.8 in 1914 02.90% (51.3 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt 00.65 00.25 00.436% BC 1650[28]
26th Dynasty of Egypt 00.65 00.25 00.436% BC 550[28]
Vakataka Kingdom 00.65 00.25 00.436% 450 AD[28]
Visigothic Kingdom 00.6 00.23 00.403% 580[24]
Caliphate of Córdoba 00.6 00.23 00.403% 1000[9]
Rai Dynasty 00.6 00.23 00.403% 675 AD[24]
Maukhari Kannauj Dynasty 00.6 00.23 00.403% 600 AD[9]
Bahmani Sultanate 00.6 00.23 00.403% 1470[9]
Nizams Dynasty 00.6 00.23 00.403% 1740[necesită citare]
Sikh Empire 00.5609 00.22 00.377% 1845[necesită citare]
Middle Kingdom of Egypt 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 1850[28]
Lydian Empire 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 585[28]
Neo-Babylonian Empire 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 562[28]
Kosala Dynasty 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 543[24]
Shishunaga dynasty 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 510[24]
Chu Dynasty 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 350[24]
Pandyan Dynasty, Tamizhan kingdom 00.5 00.19 00.336% 1251[necesită citare]
Later Han Dynasty 00.5 00.19 00.336% 947[9]
Kangju Empire 00.5 00.19 00.336% BC 100[24]
Ostrogothic Kingdom 00.5 00.19 00.336% 510 AD[9]
Goguryeo Kingdom 00.45 00.17 00.302% 476[28]
Xia Dynasty; (possible) 00.45 00.17 00.302% BC 1800[28]
Polish Piast State 00.4 00.15 00.269% 1003[44][47] ca. 2 (in 1003)[43][48] 0.58% to 0.79% (avg. 0.7%)[46]
Crimean Khanate 00.4 00.15 00.269% 1500[9]
Armenian Empire 00.4 00.15 00.269% BC 83[24]
Old Kingdom of Egypt 00.4 00.15 00.269% BC 2400[28]
Middle Kingdom of Assyria 00.4 00.15 00.269% BC 1080[28]
Latin Empire 00.35 00.14 00.235% 1204[24]
Mitanni Empire 00.3 00.12 00.201% BC 1450[28]
Carthaginian Empire 00.3 00.12 00.201% BC 220[28]
1st Dynasty, Babylon 00.25 00.10 00.168% BC 1690[28]
Serbian Empire 00.25 00.10 00.168% 1350[necesită citare]
Aztec Empire 00.22 00.08 00.148% 1520[9]
Middle Elamite 00.2 00.08 00.134% BC 1160[28]
2nd Dynasty, Isin 00.2 00.08 00.134% BC 1130[28]
Urartu Empire 00.2 00.08 00.134% BC 800[28]
Amorian Dynasty, Byzantium 00.2 00.08 00.134% BC 750[28]
Old Kingdom, Assyria 00.15 00.06 00.101% BC 1730[28]
Eastern Zhou Dynasty 00.15 00.06 00.101% BC 770[28]
z 999 z 9999 9999 99

Note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ a b Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2 
  2. ^ a b c Harrison (1998, pp. 3,7).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). „East-West Orientation of Historical Empires” (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut) 12 (no. 2): 219–229. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol12/number2/pdf/jwsr-v12n2-tah.pdf. 
  4. ^ The combined population of China and Korea in the 13th century was 83 in Biraben (2003[necesită pagina]). The combined population of Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq and Turkey was about 27 in Maddison (2006[necesită pagina]).
  5. ^ Biraben, Jean-Noel; Biraben, Jean-Noel (1 ianuarie 1979). „Essai sur l'evolution du nombre des hommes”. Population (French Edition) (Institut National d'&#201) 34 (1): 13–25. doi:10.2307/1531855. http://jstor.org/stable/1531855. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Maddison, op cit. For alternate estimates, see the Economic History Services' USA/UK GDP search tool.
  7. ^ a b c d Gordon (2005)
  8. ^ The combined population of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, United States and the Philippines was 29.2 in Maddison (2006[necesită pagina]). The population of Latin America was 39 in Biraben (2003[necesită pagina]), minus Brazil and its 4 people with was a part of the Portuguese empire.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Rein Taagepera (1 septembrie 1997). „Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia”. International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. 
  10. ^ Recorded number of persons in 1851 is 432,164,047 according to Draft History of Qing.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g (a) John D. Durand, 1960, "The Population Statistics of China, A.D. 2–1953", Population Studies Vol. 13 (No. 3), 209–256. (b) John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation", University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  12. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1290 are 58,834,711 and 13,196,206, respectively (History of Yuan), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 59,848,964 and 13,430,322 in 1291, respectively (History of Yuan).
  13. ^ Rashidun Caliphate
  14. ^ IBGE Dados Históricos dos Censos
  15. ^ While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 1. Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 2. McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 3. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 4. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 5. Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 6. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 7. Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 8. Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 9. Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 10. Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 11. Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 12. Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 13. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 15. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 16. Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 17. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 18. Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 19. Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 20. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 21. Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 22. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 23. West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 24. Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 25. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 26. Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 27.
  16. ^ a b c d McEvedy and Jones (1978).
  17. ^ Yarshater (1996, p. 47)
  18. ^ Steele, Christy, "Rome", p. 36 (2001).
  19. ^ Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  20. ^ There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60 . Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55 . Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54 . Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48 . Roman Empire Population estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120 ).
  21. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). „Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.”. Social Science History (Duke University Press) 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. 
  22. ^ Jean-Noël Biraben, "The History of the Human Population From the First Beginnings to the Present" in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population (Eds: Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume J. Wunsch), Vol. III, Chapter 66, pp 5-18, Academic Press:San Diego (2005).
  23. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1393 are 60,545,812 and 10,652,870, respectively (Ming Hui Dian), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 66,598,337 and 11,415,829 in 1403, respectively (Book of Ming).
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979).
  25. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in AD 2 are 59,594,978 and 12,233,062, respectively (Book of Han).
  26. ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York.
  27. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (1 decembrie 2006). „East-West Orientation of Historical Empires”. Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol12/number2/pdf/jwsr-v12n2-tah.pdf. Accesat la 12 august 2010. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 B.C.", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 180-196 (1978).
  29. ^ Thomlinson (1975, Table 1).
  30. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (1 decembrie 2006). „East-West Orientation of Historical Empires”. Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol12/number2/pdf/jwsr-v12n2-tah.pdf. Accesat la 12 august 2010. 
  31. ^ Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, "Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, Massachusetts, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008).
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
  34. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1195 are 48,490,400 and 7,223,400, respectively (History of Jin).
  35. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1103 are 45,981,845 and 20,524,065, respectively (Song Huiyao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 46,734,784 and 20,882,438 in 1109, respectively (Song Huiyao).
  36. ^ Recorded number of persons and households are 46,019,956 and 8,907,546, respectively, in 606 (Tongdian) or 609 (Book of Sui).
  37. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1193 are 27,845,085 and 12,302,873, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 28,320,085 and 12,670.801 in 1223, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao).
  38. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 156 are 56,486,856 and 10,677,960 respectively (Book of the Later Han).
  39. ^ Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 108-127 (1978).
  40. ^ John O. Hunwick: Timbuktu and the Songahy Empire: Al-Sa’di's Ta’rikh Al-sudan Down to 1613 and other Contemporary Documents (Brill, 2003),p. xlix.
  41. ^ Hempstone, page 312
  42. ^ Walker, Sheila S., African roots/American cultures: Africa in the creation of the Americas, Published by Rowman & Littlefield, p. 127. (2001)
  43. ^ a b Collective work. "Atlas Historyczny Polski". PPWK, 1985
  44. ^ a b Maps of border changes"[2]"
  45. ^ Administrative division in 1619"[3]"
  46. ^ a b Historical Estimates of World Population U.S. Census Bureau.
  47. ^ State of Boleslaw Chrobry"History of Poland during the Piast dynasty"
  48. ^ Population of Poland"pl:Ludność Polski"

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