2010 (film)

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2010: Contactul
2010
2010: The Year We Make Contact
2010-poster01.jpg
Afișul filmului
Regizor Peter Hyams
Scenarist Peter Hyams
După un roman de :
Arthur C. Clarke
Producător Peter Hyams
Distribuitor Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(Turner Entertainment)
Pro Video
(România)
Director de imagine Peter Hyams
Montaj Mia Goldman
James Mitchell
Muzică David Shire
Distribuție Roy Scheider
John Lithgow
Helen Mirren
Bob Balaban
Keir Dullea
Douglas Rain
Premiera 7 decembrie 1984
Durata 116 minute
Țara Statele Unite ale Americii
Limba originală engleză
Disponibil în română subtitrat
Buget 28 milioane $[1]
Încasări 40,4 milioane $
(doar în Statele Unite)[2]
PORT.ro
Pagina Cinemagia
Pagina IMDb

2010: Contactul (cunoscut și ca 2010 sau 2010: Anul primului contact[3], în engleză: 2010: Odssey Two sau 2010: The Year We Make Contact) este un film american științifico-fantastic din 1984 scris și regizat de Peter Hyams. Este o continuare a filmului din 1968 - 2001: O odisee spațială - și se bazează pe romanul lui Arthur C. Clarke: 2010: Odiseea spațială, o continuare literară a filmului.

În film interpretează Roy Scheider, Helen Mirren, Bob Balaban și John Lithgow, alături de Keir Dullea și Douglas Rain din distribuția originală.

Povestea[modificare | modificare sursă]

Information icon.svg Atenție: urmează detalii despre narațiune și/sau deznodământ.

Cu nouă ani în urmă, misiunea americană Discovery One spre planeta Jupiter a eșuat din cauze necunoscute. După cum este descris în Odiseea spațială 2001, calculatorul principal al navei Discovery, HAL 9000 sau Hal (Douglas Rain) s-a defectat, omorând patru astronauți. Al cincilea astronaut, David Bowman, a dispărut într-un enorm Monolit extraterestru care se rotește în jurul planetei Jupiter. Ultima transmisie audio a lui Bowman înainte de dispariția sa a fost: „Dumnezeule! E plin de stele”!. Înapoi pe Pământ, Heywood Floyd (Roy Scheider), șeful Consiliului Național pentru Astronautică este învinuit pentru eșecul misiunii și părăsește Consiliul. De atunci el a lucrat ca profesor la o universitate.

În timp ce tensiunile diplomatice dintre Statele Unite și Uniunea Sovietică sunt în creștere, ambele națiuni pregătesc misiuni spațiale pentru a afla ce s-a întâmplat cu Discovery. Deși nava sovietică Alexei Leonov va fi gata înaintea navei americane, sovieticii au nevoie de astronauții americani pentru a intra la bordul navei Discovery ca să investighez defecțiunea lui Hal. Guvernul Statelor Unite este de acord cu propunerea rușilor numai după ce află că Discovery se va prăbuși pe satelitul lui Jupiter, Io, înainte ca nava americană să fie lansată. Floyd, împreună cu designerul navei Discovery Walter Curnow (John Lithgow) și cu creatorul lui HAL 9000 Dr. Chandra (Bob Balaban) se alătură misiunii ruse.

După ce nava spațială sovietică Leonov ajunge în sistemul lui Jupiter, căpitanul Tania Kirbuk (al cărui nume ar putea fi o referire la Stanley Kubrick) (Helen Mirren) împreună cu câțiva colegi ruși îl trezesc pe Floyd din hibernare, deoarece au detectat clorofilă și urme de viață pe satelitul înghețat al lui Jupiter, Europa. O explozie de radiații electromagnetice distruge o sondă fără pilot trimisă de Leonov și șterge toate datele telemetrice înregistrate de sonda. Floyd suspectează că acesta este un avertisment ca oamenii să nu se apropie de Europa.

După ce supraviețuiește unei periculoase turbulențe aerodinamice din atmosfera lui Jupiter, echipajul navei Leonov ajunge lângă nava Discovery, abandonată dar întreagă, care orbitează planeta în apropierea satelitului Io. Curnow reactivează nava și Chandra repornește calculatorul Hal, pe care Dave Bowman îl dezactivase cu puțin timp înainte de dispariția sa. De asemenea sunt aproape de Monolitul extraterestru care a fost și scopul misiunii Discovery. Cosmonautul Max Brailovsky (Elya Baskin) călătorește spre Monolit într-o mică navetă spațială, dar este spulberat de o explozie de energie care țâșnește din Monolit și se îndreaptă spre Pământ; Max dispare pentru totdeauna. Pe Pământ, Dave Bowman, acum o ființă fără corp, dar cu toate amintirile fostei sale forme umane, apare pe ecranul televizorului fostei sale soții pentru a-și lua rămas bun. El o vizitează și pe mama sa aflată în fază terminală într-un azil de bătrâni și-i piaptăna părul înainte ca aceasta să moară în pace.

Între timp pe Discovery, Chandra descoperă de ce s-a defectat Hal: Consiliul Național de Securitate al Statelor Unite ale Americii i-a cerut computerului să ascundă față de echipajul navei Discovery faptul că misiunea are legătură cu Monolitul extraterestru. Acest lucru a dus la un conflict cu funcția primară a lui Hal de procesare corectă a informațiilor, făcându-l să aibă o cădere mintală. Acest lucru a fost făcut fără știrea lui Floyd, chiar dacă ordinul pare să fie aprobat și de el.

On Earth, tensions between the United States and Soviet Union escalate to what is "technically a state of war", and the US government orders Floyd, Curnow, and Chandra to move into Discovery. Both crews plan to leave Jupiter when a launch window opens in several weeks. However, Bowman appears and tells Floyd that everybody must leave Jupiter space within two days because "something wonderful" is going to happen. Floyd, shocked to the core by Bowman's appearance, returns to the Leonov to talk to Kirbuk, but then the Monolith suddenly disappears and a growing black spot appears on Jupiter itself. The spot is actually a vast group of Monoliths that are constantly multiplying. The Monoliths begin shrinking Jupiter's volume, increasing the planet's density, and modifying the chemical properties of its atmosphere.

This convinces the two crews that they must leave soon. Since neither ship can reach Earth with an early departure, they work together to use the Discovery as a booster rocket for the Leonov. Tension arises when Hal is not told that the Discovery will be left stranded in space, and possibly destroyed, and Chandra fears that another deception may cause Hal to malfunction again. During the launch countdown, Chandra finally tells the computer the truth. Hal agrees that he must sacrifice himself for the human beings onboard Leonov to complete Discovery's mission, and thanks Chandra for telling him the truth.

As Leonov and Discovery launch away, Bowman appears once again to Hal and tells him that their mission has been a success and repeats that "something wonderful" is going to happen. He commands Hal to break his communication link with the Leonov and repeatedly broadcast a final message to Earth:

Format:Epigraph

TOATE ACESTE LUMI
CU EXCEPȚIA EUROPEI,
VĂ APARȚIN.
NU ÎNCERCAȚI SĂ ATERIZAȚI ACOLO.
FOLOSIȚI-LE ÎMPREUNĂ, ÎN PACE

Jupiter is engulfed by monoliths, which increase its density to the point that nuclear fusion occurs, transforming the planet into a small star. Discovery is consumed in the blast, but Leonov breaks away and begins its long journey home. The new star's miraculous appearance later inspires American and Soviet leaders to seek peace. Over the centuries that follow, Europa gradually transforms from an icy wasteland to a humid jungle covered with plant life... while a Monolith stands in the primeval Europan swamp, waiting for intelligent life forms to find it.

Distribuție[modificare | modificare sursă]

Scurte apariții[modificare | modificare sursă]

Arthur C. Clarke apare în film în rolul unui om care stă într-un parc de lângă Casa Albă (which is out-of-frame in the pan-and-scan version, but visible in the letterboxed and widescreen versions). In addition, a Time magazine cover about the American-Soviet tensions is briefly shown, in which the President of the United States is portrayed by Clarke and the Soviet Premier by the 2001 producer, writer, and director, Stanley Kubrick.

Producție[modificare | modificare sursă]

Development[modificare | modificare sursă]

When Clarke published his novel 2010: Odyssey Two in 1982, he telephoned Stanley Kubrick, and jokingly said, "Your job is to stop anybody [from] making it [into a movie] so I won't be bothered."[4] Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) subsequently worked out a contract to make a film adaptation, but Kubrick had no interest in directing it. However, Peter Hyams was interested and contacted both Clarke and Kubrick for their blessings:

"I had a long conversation with Stanley and told him what was going on. If it met with his approval, I would do the film; and if it didn't, I wouldn't. I certainly would not have thought of doing the film if I had not gotten the blessing of Kubrick. He's one of my idols; simply one of the greatest talents that's ever walked the Earth. He more or less said, 'Sure. Go do it. I don't care.' And another time he said, 'Don't be afraid. Just go do your own movie.'"[4]

Clarke's correspondence with Peter Hyams, the director of 2010, was published in 1984.[5][6] Titled The Odyssey File: The Making of 2010, this book illustrates Dr. Clarke's fascination with the then-pioneering medium of e-mail and his use of it to communicate with Hyams on an almost-daily basis during the planning and production of the film. (Clarke was living in Sri Lanka while the production was taking place in California.) This book also includes Clarke's list of the top science fiction films ever made. Unfortunately, in order to give the publishers enough lead-time to have it available for the release of the movie, the book terminates while the movie is still in pre-production. At the point of the last e-mail, Clarke had not yet read the script, and Roy Scheider was the only actor who had been cast.

Efecte speciale[modificare | modificare sursă]

The special effects for 2010 were filmed on 65mm film (the live action scenes were filmed on 35mm) and, due to the differences in film size and ratio, there is a noticeable "cut off" area at the side of the picture during the space scenes when the film is viewed in widescreen. The effects were produced by the Entertainment Effects Group (EEG), the special effects house created by Douglas Trumbull. However, Trumbull himself did not work on the film, and the effects were supervised by Richard Edlund, who had just left Industrial Light and Magic. After completing 2010, EEG would become a part of Edlund's own effects company Boss Film Corporation.

Early in the production of 2010, Hyams found out that the original 50-foot model of the "Discovery One" that had been built for 2001 had also been destroyed following the filming, as had all of the model-makers' plans for building it. The model makers at EEG had to use frame-by-frame enlargements from a 70 mm copy of the original film to recreate the "Discovery One".

Although computer-generated imagery (or CGI) was still in its infancy in 1984, the special effects team of 2010 used CGI to create the dynamic looking cloudy atmosphere of the planet Jupiter, as well as the swarm of monoliths that engulf the planet and turn it into a Sun for the planet Europa. Digital Productions would use data supplied by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to create the turbulent Jovian atmosphere. This was one of the first instances of what the studio would later refer to as "Digital Scene Simulation," a concept they would take to the next level with The Last Starfighter.

In order to maintain the realism of the lighting in outer space, in which light would usually come from a single light source (in this case, the Sun), Edlund and Hyams decided that blue-screen photography would not be used for shooting the space scenes. Instead, a process known as front-light/back-light filming was used. The models were filmed as they would appear in space, then a white background was placed behind the model. This isolated the model's outlines so that proper traveling mattes could be made. All of this processing doubled the amount of time that it took to film these sequences, due to the first motion-control pass that was needed to generate the matte. This process also eliminated the problem of "blue spill", which is the main disadvantage of blue-screen photography. In this, photographed models would often have blue outlines surrounding them because a crisp matte was not always possible to make.

Blue-screen photography was used in the scene in which Floyd demonstrates his plan to use the two spaceships to achieve the change in momentum needed to leave Jovian orbit before the opening of the launch window. In this scene, Floyd uses two pens to demonstrate his plans. Roy Scheider performed this scene without the pens actually being present, and the pens were filmed separately against a blue screen - using an "Oxberry" animation stand that was programmed to match Scheider's movements. (The initial sequence of Floyd's making the pens float was carried out by simply attaching them to a polished piece of oscillating glass that was placed between him and the camera.)

Muzica[modificare | modificare sursă]

Initially, Tony Banks (keyboardist for the band Genesis) was commissioned to do the soundtrack for 2010. However, Banks' material was rejected[7] and David Shire was then selected to compose the soundtrack, which he co-produced along with Craig Huxley. The soundtrack album was released by A&M Records in the United States.

Unlike many film soundtracks from the first half of the 1980s and before, the soundtrack for 2010 was composed for and played mainly using digital synthesizers. These included the Synclavier by the New England Digital company and a Yamaha DX1. Only two compositions on the soundtrack album feature a symphony orchestra. Shire and Huxley were so impressed by the realistic sound of the Synclavier that they placed a disclaimer in the album's liner notes stating "No re-synthesis or sampling was employed on the Synclavier."

Andy Summers, guitarist for the band The Police, performed a track entitled "2010", which was a modern new-wave pop version of Richard Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra (which had been the main theme from 2001: A Space Odyssey). Though Summers' recording was included on the soundtrack album, it was not used in the film.

Release[modificare | modificare sursă]

Benzi desenate[modificare | modificare sursă]

In 1984, Marvel Comics published a 50-page comic book adaptation of the movie. It was adapted by J. M. DeMatteis, and illustrated by Joe Barney, Larry Hama and Tom Palmer.

Home media[modificare | modificare sursă]

2010 was first released on DVD (R1) in 1998 by MGM. It was re-issued (with different artwork) in September 2000 by Warner Bros. Both releases are presented with the soundtrack remastered in Dolby 5.1 surround sound and in the original 2.35:1 aspect ratio, though a packaging error appears on the 2000 Warner release, claiming that the film is presented in anamorphic widescreen when, in reality, it is simply letterboxed and not anamorphic (the MGM version of the DVD makes no such claim). The R1 releases also include the film trailer and a 10 minute behind-the-scenes featurette "2010: The Odyssey Continues" (made at the time of the film's production), though this is not available in other regions.

The film was released on Blu-ray Disc on April 7, 2009. It features a BD-25 single-layer presentation with 1080p/VC-1 video and English Dolby TrueHD 5.1 Surround audio. The disc also includes the film's original "making of" promotional featurette (as above) and theatrical trailer as extras.

Recepție[modificare | modificare sursă]

Critical reaction to 2010 has been mixed to positive, with the film holding a rating of 64% of Rotten Tomatoes.[8] Roger Ebert gave 2010 three stars out of four, writing that it "doesn't match the poetry and the mystery of the original film" and "has an ending that is infuriating, not only in its simplicity, but in its inadequacy to fulfill the sense of anticipation, the sense of wonder we felt at the end of 2001". He concluded, however: "And yet the truth must be told: This is a good movie. Once we've drawn our lines, once we've made it absolutely clear that 2001 continues to stand absolutely alone as one of the greatest movies ever made, once we have freed 2010 of the comparisons with Kubrick's masterpiece, what we are left with is a good-looking, sharp-edged, entertaining, exciting space opera".[9]

James Berardinelli also gave the film three stars out of four, writing that "2010 continues 2001 without ruining it. The greatest danger faced by filmmakers helming a sequel is that a bad installment will in some way sour the experience of watching the previous movie. This does not happen here. Almost paradoxically, 2010 may be unnecessary, but it is nevertheless a worthwhile effort."[10] Vincent Canby gave 2010 a lukewarm review, calling it "a perfectly adequate though not really comparable sequel" that "is without wit, which is not to say that it is witless. A lot of care has gone into it, but it has no satirical substructure to match that of the Kubrick film, and which was eventually responsible for that film's continuing popularity."[11]

Premii[modificare | modificare sursă]

Though it did not win, 2010 was nominated for five Academy Awards:[12][13]

2010 won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation in 1985.

Diferențe față de roman[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • The film 2010 omits the space voyage and the landing of the Chinese spaceship, Tsien,[14] on the Jovian moon Europa before the Alexei Leonov's arrival, and the accidental destruction of the Tsien by the non-intelligent life-forms residing there, and also the description of Dave Bowman's (the Star Child's) exploration of the Jovian system, in which he observes various life forms in the oceans of Europa and in the Jovian atmosphere.
  • The film also omits almost all the romantic/physical relationships between the astronauts. In the novel, Tanya Kirbuk is married to the navigator, Vasili Orlov, and has taken the surname Orlova.[15] In the novel, Walter Curnow is homosexual (or possibly bisexual) [16] and he has a relationship with Maxim Brailovsky, but breaks it off when he learns that Zenia Marchenko is in love with Maxim. At the end of the novel it is announced that Maxim and Zenia have decided to marry, and that Curnow plans to marry the doctor, Katerina Rudenko, although Floyd suspects that Curnow may not be serious in his intentions.[17]
  • Also omitted from the film is the ending of Dr. Floyd's marriage while he is on board the mission to Jupiter,[18] due to his wife's natural feeling of abandonment from his leaving her and their son to go on a years-long spaceflight. The voice-mail letters to his family in the movie replace moments in the novel in which Dr. Floyd corresponds with his wife, and later his friend Dimitri Moisevitch back on Earth. The closing montage of Earth scenes shows Floyd, his wife, and their son on a beach looking at the new star.
  • The film adds a few sub-plots that are not present in the novel. A manned exploratory expedition to the black monolith in Jovian orbit is portrayed in which Maxim gets killed. (He does not die in the novel.) The film also adds a testy period of political tension between the U.S and the U.S.S.R which results in the American astronauts being expelled from Alexei Leonov and being sent to live on the Discovery One. (Political tensions in the novel focus on China, with the US and USSR portrayed as on relatively good terms.)
  • Several characters have been modified from the novel to the movie. In the novel 2010, Dr. Chandra is definitely an Asian Indian man. His full name is Sivasubramanian Chandrasegarampillai,[19] and he displays several Indian habits. In the film, this character, the computer science expert, is referred to only as "Dr. Chandra", and he is played by Bob Balaban, a light-skinned American caucasian (whose ancestry is Russian Jewish) . Chandra and SAL are shown at the University of Chicago instead of the University of Illinois.[19]
  • In the novel, Dr. Rudenko is a woman named Katerina, but in the film, Dr. Rudenko is a man named Vladimir. In the novel, a crew member named Irina Yakunina suffers an injury before the launch, and she is replaced by Zenia Marchenko, but in the film, there is a crew member called Irina Yakunina who has all of Zenia's character traits.
  • In the novel, the idea of using the Discovery One as a booster is Curnow's idea - naturally since he is the American astronautical engineer on board, and it is his job to work on repairing the Discovery One. It is definitely not Dr. Floyd's idea, as it is in the movie, although the film does not rule out Curnow and Floyd discussing the idea first. Also, Curnow's character is much more outgoing and ebullient than in the movie.
  • Time frames for events are typically longer in the novel than in the film. For example, in the novel Bowman's warning indicates that the Alexei Leonov and its crew have to leave Jupiter space within fifteen days.[20] The film shortens this deadline to only two days.
  • In the novel, HAL is commanded to repeatedly broadcast the message "ALL THESE WORLDS ARE YOURS - EXCEPT EUROPA. ATTEMPT NO LANDINGS THERE."[21] The film adds the words "USE THEM TOGETHER. USE THEM IN PEACE."
  • The novel includes a brief epilogue titled "20,001", which details the evolution of the Europans. The film simplifies this to a single scene of Europa gradually being transformed into a jungle planet.

Discontinuități între 2001 și 2010[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • In its use of Jupiter as a setting, the film is discontinuous with the novel of 2001 but continuous with the film. While the novel of 2001 had located the destination of Discovery One at Saturn, this was changed to Jupiter for the film to simplify the special effects. Both the novel and the film of 2010 follow the film of 2001 in using Jupiter.
  • In the film, 2010, the blue spacesuit on the Discovery One is missing its helmet, even though the blue suit was never used at all in the film 2001. (In 2001, when Dave Bowman enters the Discovery One to disable HAL, he is actually wearing a green helmet - part of a green spacesuit that is stowed in the emergency airlock.) He changes to wearing the red helmet for his voyage into the Black Monolith. (The blue spacesuit was later used in the Babylon 5 episode "War Without End".)
  • In the film, 2010, Dr. Floyd protests that he never authorized anyone to inform HAL of the TMA-1 monolith prior to the Discovery One's launch to Jupiter. However, in the film version of 2001, the recorded message by Dr. Floyd that is played after HAL's disconnection clearly states that only HAL had full knowledge of the TMA-1 monolith. Either Floyd's denial of knowledge ("I didn't authorize anyone to tell Hal about the monolith!" and "I didnt know!"), is a lie to protect himself from his colleagues, or the NCA itself faked Floyd's message to the Discovery crew.
  • In the novel 2001, HAL identifies his teacher as Dr. Chandra. Stanley Kubrick's film changed the name to "Mr. Langley". Both the novel and the film of 2010 use "Dr. Chandra", without noting that "Chandra" and "Langley" were meant to be the same character.
  • The line "My God... it's full of stars!", quoted at the beginning of the film 2010 was not spoken in the film 2001. It is only spoken in the novel.
  • In the film, 2001, Kubrick had taken the unusual (and realistic) step of presenting explosions in outer space as being silent, as they would be in a vacuum. In the film, 2010, they are presented inaccurately as producing noise.
  • In the film 2001, the informational displays on the Discovery One are flat panels (realized by the film's set designers by using rear-projection). In the film, 2010, the displays are cathode ray tubes (CRTs) with the slightly-curved face characteristic of most CRTs. (Actual CRTs were used in the set design.)
  • In the film, 2001, Dr. Floyd states that the monolith found on the Moon was located "near the crater Tycho" - hence the designation "TMA-1" ("Tycho Magnetic Anomaly"). In his text report at the beginning of 2010, Dr. Floyd states that the Monolith was discovered on the Moon's Sea of Tranquility. These two lunar locations are hundreds of miles apart.
  • By the end of the film, 2001, all three of Discovery One's pods would have been gone (The first one gone with Frank Poole, the second when Dave Bowman tried to save Poole, and the third through the Star Gate), but in 2010, we see that Discovery One still has one pod in its bay. (In the novel, it was explained that Bowman had somehow recovered the second pod afterwards, and it was this second pod that remained on Discovery). Bowman would have had to recover both the pod and its blown hatch (or replace the missing hatch with a spare). However, we never actually see the second pod fly away into space; it is possible that it was attached to the side of Discovery via its remote manipulator arm.

Note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ ATOMIC DONKEY#0: 2010: The Year We Make Contact (1984)”. Bsmbow.blogspot.com. 1 ianuarie 2010. http://bsmbow.blogspot.com/2009/12/2010-year-we-make-contact-1984.html. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  2. ^ Box Office Mojo”. Box Office Mojo. 12 februarie 1985. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=2010.htm. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  3. ^ 2010 la PORT.ro
  4. ^ a b LoBrutto 1997, p. 456.
  5. ^ Arthur C. Clarke and Peter Hyams. The Odyssey File. Ballantine Books, 1984.
  6. ^ Excerpt from ''The Odyssey File''”. Davidrothman.com. 16 noiembrie 1982. http://www.davidrothman.com/jungle.html. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  7. ^ Tony Banks interview, WorldOfGenesis.com
  8. ^ 2010: The Year We Make Contact Movie Reviews, Pictures”. Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/2010_the_year_we_make_contact/. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  9. ^ 2010 :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews”. Rogerebert.suntimes.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19840101/REVIEWS/401010302/1023. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  10. ^ 2010: A Film Review by James Berardinelli”. Reelviews.net. http://www.reelviews.net/movies/t/2010.html. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  11. ^ Canby, Vincent (7 decembrie 1984). „Movie Review - 2010 - '2010,' PURSUES THE MYSTERY OF '2001' - NYTimes.com”. Movies.nytimes.com. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A04E5D9143AF934A35751C1A962948260. Accesat la 18 februarie 2011. 
  12. ^ The 57th Academy Awards (1985) Nominees and Winners”. oscars.org. http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/legacy/ceremony/57th-winners.html. Accesat la 13 octombrie 2011. 
  13. ^ NY Times: 2010”. NY Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/152844/2010/awards. Accesat la 1 ianuarie 2009. 
  14. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), pages 55 to 82.
  15. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 37.
  16. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), pages 148 to 150.
  17. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 287.
  18. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 191.
  19. ^ a b Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 31.
  20. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 213.
  21. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), page 284.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

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