Tutun

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Pentru genul de plante, vedeți Nicotiana.
Plantație de tutun în Chatham, Virginia, SUA
Plantație de tutun în Pinar del Río, Cuba

Tutunul sau tabacul este o plantă din genul Nicotiana, familia Solanaceae. În lume există peste 70 de specii de plante de tutun, principala din ele din punct de vedere comercial fiind Nicotiana tabacum.

Frunzele uscate de tutun sunt fumate în țigarete, trabucuri și pipe.

Folosirea tabacului este un factor de risc pentru multe boli, în special cele ce afectează inima, ficatul și plămânii și poate cauza apariția cancerului. Conform Organizației Mondiale a Sănătății, tutunul este singura cauză majoră a decesului prematur în lume.[1]

Producători majori de tutun[modificare | modificare sursă]

Top 5 producători de tutun, 2012[2]
Țara Producție (tone) Note
 China 3.200.000
 India 875.000 F
 Brazilia 810.550
 Statele Unite 345.837
 Indonezia 226.700
 

</noinclude>Total în lume||align=right| 7.490.661,35||A

Nu-s note = date oficiale, F = Estimarea OAA, A = mixte (include date oficiale, semioficiale sau estimări).

Consum de tutun per capita[modificare | modificare sursă]

Consum de tutun per capita (15+ ani) (grame, 2011)
Țara Consum per capita
 Cehia 2.328
 Coreea de Sud 2.151
 Germania 1.748
 Elveția 1.690
 Turcia 1.633
 Statele Unite 1.374
 Finlanda 1.221
 Norvegia 1.073
 Marea Britanie 969

Sursa:Helgi Library[3]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ (PDF) WHO Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008 (foreword and summary). World Health Organization. 2008. p. 8. http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_forward_summary_2008.pdf. „Tobacco is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today.”. 
  2. ^ FAOSTAT”. Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/Q/*/E. Accesat la 19 mai 2014. 
  3. ^ | http://helgilibrary.com/indicators/index/tobacco-consumption-per-capita-15-years | datum přístupu=2014-02-10

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Paul Lichtenstein, Ph.D., Niels V. Holm, M.D., Ph.D., Pia K. Verkasalo, M.D., Ph.D., Anastasia Iliadou, M.Sc., Jaakko Kaprio, M.D., Ph.D., Markku Koskenvuo, M.D., Ph.D., Eero Pukkala, Ph.D., Axel Skytthe, M.Sc., and Kari Hemminki, M.D., Ph.D. (2000) Environmental and Heritable Factors in the Causation of Cancer — Analyses of Cohorts of Twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland343New England Journal of Medicine http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/343/2/78. Accesat la 21 ianuarie 2009 
  • Environmental causes of human cancers. European Journal of Cancer. 2001. 
  • Janet E. Ash, Maryadele J. O'Neil, Ann Smith, Joanne F. Kinneary (1 iunie 1997) [1996]. The Merck Index (ed. 12). Merk and Co.. ISBN 0-412-75940-3 
  • Benedict, Carol. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010 (2011)
  • Breen, T. H. (1985). Tobacco Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00596-6. Source on tobacco culture in 18th-century Virginia pp. 46–55
  • Burns, Eric. The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.
  • W.K. Collins and S.N. Hawks. "Principles of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production" 1st Edition, 1993
  • Fuller, R. Reese (Spring 2003). Perique, the Native Crop. Louisiana Life.
  • Gately, Iain. Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. Grove Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8021-3960-4.
  • Graves, John. "Tobacco that is not Smoked" in From a Limestone Ledge (the sections on snuff and chewing tobacco) ISBN 0-394-51238-3
  • Grehan, James. Smoking and "Early Modern" Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries). The American Historical Review, Vol. III, Issue 5. 2006. 22 March 2008 online
  • Hahn, Barbara. Making Tobacco Bright: Creating an American Commodity, 1617-1937 (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2011) 248 pages; examines how marketing, technology, and demand figured in the rise of Bright Flue-Cured Tobacco, a variety first grown in the inland Piedmont region of the Virginia-North Carolina border.
  • Killebrew, J. B. and Myrick, Herbert (1909). Tobacco Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. Orange Judd Company. Source for flea beetle typology (p. 243)
  • Murphey, Rhoads. Studies on Ottoman Society and Culture: 16th-18th Centuries. Burlington, VT: Ashgate: Variorum, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7546-5931-0 ISBN 0-7546-5931-3
  • Price, Jacob M. “Tobacco Use and Tobacco Taxation: A battle of Interests in Early Modern Europe”. Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology. Jordan Goodman, et al. New York: Routledge, 1995 166-169 ISBN 0-415-09039-3
  • Poche, L. Aristee (2002). Perique tobacco: Mystery and history.
  • Tilley, Nannie May The Bright Tobacco Industry 1860–1929 ISBN 0-405-04728-2. Source on flea beetle prevention (pp. 39–43), and history of flue-cured tobacco
  • Rivenson A., Hoffmann D., Propokczyk B. et al. Induction of lung and pancreas exocrine tumors in F344 rats by tobacco-specific and areca-derived N-nitrosamines. Cancer Res (48) 6912–6917, 1988. (link to abstract; free full text pdf available)
  • Schoolcraft, Henry R. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia, 1851–57)
  • Shechter, Relli. Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco Market 1850–2000. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006 ISBN 1-84511-137-0

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]