Comedie neagră

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O comedie neagră sau comedie grotească este o lucrare de comedie care conține elemente de umor negru.[1] Definiția umorului negru este problematică, s-a afirmat că aceasta ar corespunde conceptului de umor macabru.[2][3][4][5][6]

Termenul Umor negru (din franceză; humour noir) a fost inventat de către teoreticianul suprarealist André Breton în 1935,[7][8] pentru a desemna un subgen al comediei și al satirei, în care râsul rezultă din cinism și scepticism,[7] de multe ori bazându-se pe teme cum ar fi moartea.[9][10]

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  1. ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc (1995) Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of literature, entry black humor, p.144
  2. ^ Garrick, Jacqueline and Williams, Mary Beth (2006) Trauma treatment techniques: innovative trends pp.175-6
  3. ^ Lipman, Steve (1991) Laughter in hell: the use of humor during the Holocaust, Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.
  4. ^ Kurt Vonnegut (1971) Running Experiments Off: An Interview, interview by Laurie Clancy, published in Meanjin Quarterly, 30 (Autumn, 1971), pp.46-54, and in Conversations with Kurt Vonnegut, quote:
    „The term [Black Humor] was part of the language before Freud wrote an essay on it -- 'gallows humor.' This is middle European humor, a response to hopeless situations. It's what a man says faced with a perfectly hopeless situation and he still manages to say something funny. Freud gives examples: A man being led out to be hanged at dawn says, 'Well, the day is certainly starting well.' It's generally called Jewish humor in this country. Actually it's humor from the peasants' revolt, the thirty years' war, and from the Napoleonic wars. It's small people being pushed this way and that way, enormous armies and plagues and so forth, and still hanging on in the face of hopelessness. Jewish jokes are middle European jokes. And the black humorists are gallows humorists, as they try to be funny in the face of situations which they see as just horrible.”
  5. ^ Bloom, Harold (2010) Dark Humor, ch. On dark humor in literature, pp.80-88
  6. ^ Freud (1927) Humor
  7. ^ a b Real, Hermann Josef (2005) The reception of Jonathan Swift in Europe, p.90 quote:
    „At least, Swift's text is preserved, and so is a prefactory note by the French writer André Breton, which emphasizes Swift's importance as the originator of black humor, of laughter that arises from cynicism and scepticism.”
  8. ^ Lezard, Nicholas (21 februarie 2009). „From the sublime to the surreal”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/feb/21/anthology-of-black-humour. 
  9. ^ Thomas Leclair (1975) Death and Black Humor in Critique, Vol. 17, 1975
  10. ^ .