Visual kei

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Visual kei
Origini stilistice Diverse (heavy metal, glam rock și punk rock)
Origini culturale Japonia
Instrumente tipice Vocal, chitară electrică, chitară bas, baterie, clape
Subgenuri
Angura kei • Eroguro kei • Kote kei • Kurafu kei • Oshare kei
Scene regionale
Nagoya
Alte subiecte
Cultura japonezăModa japoneză

Visual kei (ヴィジュアル系 bijuaru kei?, lit. "visual style" sau "visual system") este o mișcare printre muzicienii japonezi,[1][2][3] care se caracterizează prin utilizarea a diverse nivele de make-up, coafuri înfoiate și costume viu colorate, uneori însoțite de estetici androgene.[4][5][6] Unele surse prezintă visual kei ca un gen muzical,[7][8] apărut pe bază de J-Rock[7][8] în rezultatul fuziunii cu glam rock, punk rock și heavy metal.[9][5][10][11][12] Totuși, asta vine în contradicție cu faptul că visual kei interpretează diferite genuri,[1][13][14] inclusiv de cele care nu au legătură cu rockul cum ar fi muzica electronică, pop, etc.[2][5] Alte surse, includ membrii mișcării, nu într-un gen muzical, ci într-o subcultură.[4][15][16][17][18]


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Lista de trupe[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe și note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ a b Visual Kei 101 – Segment 1: the GazettE”. MTV. 11 noiembrie 2013. http://www.mtv81.com/videos/video-interviews/the-gazette-2-segment-1/. Accesat la 13 noiembrie 2013. „Visual-kei is a uniquely Japanese music scene, but it doesn’t have a specific sound – it’s more of a movement.” 
  2. ^ a b International Music Feed feature "J Rock"”. International Music Feed. Arhivat din original la 12 octombrie 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012022959/http://www.imf.com/link_player.html?video_id=2283. Accesat la 31 iulie 2007. 
  3. ^ Sollee, Kristen (25 iunie 2006). „Japanese Rock on NPR”. The Big Takeover. http://www.bigtakeover.com/news/japanese-rock-on-npr. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „It’s a style of dress, there’s a lot of costuming and make up and it’s uniquely Japanese because it goes back to ancient Japan. Men would often wear women’s clothing...” 
  4. ^ a b Strauss, Neil (18 iunie 1998). „The Pop Life: End of a Life, End of an Era”. The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D00EFD7103DF93BA25755C0A96E958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Accesat la 31 iulie 2007. „For visual kei bands, outrageous, usually androgynous looks -- gobs of makeup, hair dyed and sprayed in ways that made Mohawks look conservative, and a small fortune spent on leather and jewellery -- were as important as music (or, in many cases after X, more important than music).; To a certain extent, Hide's death means the end of an era, said Steve McClure, Tokyo bureau chief for Billboard, the music-industry magazine. X were the first generation of visual kei bands, but the novelty has worn off. For the next generation of bands, it's like: That's it. The torch has been passed to us. 
  5. ^ a b c Reesman, Brian (30 noiembrie 2006). „Kabuki Rock”. Grammy.com. http://www.grammylive.com/Latin/News/Default.aspx?newsID=2278. Accesat la 7 august 2007. „Josephine Yun, author of the book Jrock, Ink., explains that visual kei originated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as Japan's rock scene began cultivating its own identity. 'It was rock 'n roll, punk rock, glam and metal with a twist — a twist just as angry and rebellious as what came before it — but a poetic one, artistic, with painstaking attention to detail,' Yun explains. She points out that "visual kei" literally translates as "visual style" and spans a wide range of musical genres.; Musically, it can be anything: American rock, British punk, glam, metal, Euro pop, techno, new wave, electronica," explains Yun. "Visually, the influences are diverse as well: traditional Japanese dress, S&M outfits, costumes made of vinyl, leather, lace, plastic...you name it."” 
  6. ^ Suzuki, Chako (1 ianuarie 2007). „Pretty Babies: Japan's Undying Gothic Lolita Phenomenon”. fashionlines.com. http://www.fashionlines.com/2007/jan/fashionPrettyBabies.php. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „Visual Kei is exactly as it sounds: Rock music that incorporates visual effects and elaborate costumes to heighten the experience of the music and the show. Visual Kei started in the 80s and became so popular by the 90s that the nearly all-female fan base started dressing up as their favorite band members (known as 'cosplay') who were often males that wore make-up, crazy hair, and dressed androgynously or as females (usually, the more feminine the rocker, the more fans rush to emulate them).” 
  7. ^ a b Heinrich, Sally (2006). Key Into Japan. Curriculum Corporation. pp. 80. ISBN 1-86366-772-5 
  8. ^ a b Yun, Josephine (2005). Jrock, Ink.: A concise report on 40 of the biggest rock acts in Japan. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-95-7 
  9. ^ Arulvarathan, Subha (15 aprilie 2006). „For those about to J-Rock”. The Carillon. http://www.carillon.uregina.ca/03.09.06/arts6.html. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „Visual kei is a branch of Japanese rock. It has its roots as an underground movement in the late ’80s and early ’90s and can be considered pastiche, as it aims to experiment with various established genres such as rock, punk, metal, goth and glam in an attempt to create a wholly new sound.” 
  10. ^ Minnie, Chi (15 aprilie 2006). „X [Japan: Reliving the Height of Japan’s Superlative Visual Rock Band]”. asiaarts.ucla.edu. http://www.asiaarts.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=7936. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „...a fleeting genre known to fans as 'Visual Kei'. Nonetheless, this fusion of metal, punk and gothic aesthetics ignited at least two generations of followers with its shocking visual appeal...; 'Visual Kei' as a genre has more or less expired since the late ‘90s. The music that derived from the scene has transformed and visual bands have generally subdued their appearance.” 
  11. ^ Gibson, Dave (2 noiembrie 1998). „Rising Sun”. Fort Worth Weekly. http://weeklywire.com/ww/11-02-98/fw_music.html. Accesat la 10 septembrie 2007. 
  12. ^ Reesman, Bryan. (30 noiembrie 2006). „Kabuki Rock”. Grammy.com. http://www2.grammy.com/Latin/News/Default.aspx?newsID=2278&newsCategoryID=3. Accesat la 1 aprilie 2010. 
  13. ^ Robson, Daniel (27 aprilie 2007). „Shock-rock act Dir En Grey snub cartoons for cred”. The Japan Times. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2010/12/17/music/shock-rock-act-dir-en-grey-snub-cartoons-for-cred/#.UbIVqpxArIU. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „...visual-kei, where peacockish fashion far overshadows any definitive sound.; To be honest, when we first started and we were wearing a lot of makeup on stage and stuff, there were a lot of bands doing that at the time in Japan, and people thought it was cool. But not anymore, ha ha. The music was so unique, too — bands like X Japan. At that time, there weren’t any two bands that sounded alike; these days everyone sounds exactly the same” 
  14. ^ UnsraW interview”. JaME-World.com. 27 aprilie 2007. http://www.jame-world.com/uk/articles-2158-unsraw-interview.html. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „[...]Visual kei is not really categorized based on the type of music...” 
  15. ^ Robson, Daniel (20 noiembrie 2011). „Interview with YOSHIKI in Brazil”. JaME-World.com. http://www.jame-world.com/us/articles-80940-interview-with-yoshiki-in-brazil.html. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „But visual kei is more like a spirit, it’s not a music style or, you know… I think it is a freedom about describing myself, a freedom to express myself, that’s what I believe visual kei is.” 
  16. ^ Interview with ANGELO”. JRock Revolution. 24 noiembrie 2008. http://jrockrevolution.com/2008/11/webzine/interview-with-angelo-250. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „Well I still don’t think “visual kei” is a name for a genre; I see it as a bigger picture, as a part of rock. The visual aspect is something for a band to set themselves apart from others, at least that’s what it was ten years ago. Now it’s more like people are dressing up a certain way because they want to be “visual kei” or look “visual kei.” They are doing it to look like others instead of doing it to look different. This is obviously very different from when we started out more than ten years ago. That’s how I see it.” 
  17. ^ the Underneath Debuts: Interview Part 1”. JRock Revolution. 29 februarie 2008. http://jrockrevolution.com/2008/02/webzine/the-underneath-debuts-interview-part-1-224. Accesat la 7 iunie 2013. „Well, visual kei isn’t a genre of music; it’s used to categorize the bands that show their unique characteristics with their costumes and makeup, though sometimes the music doesn’t necessarily fit the image. Either way, it’s used to describe such bands that show their individualism through their appearance.” 
  18. ^ Visual Kei 101 – Segment 2: the GazettE”. MTV. 12 noiembrie 2013. http://www.mtv81.com/videos/video-interviews/the-gazette-2-segment-2/. Accesat la 13 noiembrie 2013. „Visual kei isn't a genre of music.” 

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Inoue, Takako (2003). Visual kei no jidai. Tokyo: Seikyūsha. ISBN 978-4787232168 
  • Friederike von Gross: Visual Kei — jugendliche Musikfans im Internet; in: Kai-Uwe Hugger (HG), Digitale Jugendkulturen, Wiesbaden 2010, S. 151—167
  • Marco Höhn (2008): Visual kei: Vom Wandel einer ‚japanischen Jugendkultur‘ zu einer translokalen Medienkultur. In: Tanja Thomas (Hg.): Medienkultur und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden 2008, S. 193—207

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

Commons
Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate de Visual kei