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Simbolurile muzicale moderne sunt semne, marcaje şi simboluri utilizate de majoritatea muzicienilor, indiferent de stilul sau genul pe care aceştia în abordează.

Linii[modificare | modificare sursă]

Music-staff.png Portativul este spaţiul format din cinci linii paralele şi patru spaţii, pe care sunt notate notele şi alte simbolurile muzicale. Fiecărui sunet din scara uniform temperată îi revine o linie sau un spaţiu pe portativ, în funcţie de cheia înscrisă în partea stângă a portativului. Spre exemplu, dacă cheia SOL este folosită, atunci primei linii îi corespunde nota Mi (E4, care se află deasupra lui C4, numit şi C mijlociu), primului spaţiu nota Fa (aflată la un semiton distanţă de Mi), celei de-a doua linii Sol, celui de-al doilea spaţiu La, ş.a.m.d. Portativul general constă în reunirea a două portative de cinci linii, având o linie suplimentară imaginară la mijloc. Pe portativul general se scrie muzica pentru două, trei şi patru voci, armonice şi polifonice.
Music-ledger.png Linii suplimentare sunt folosite în cazul în care cele cinci linii ale portativului nu sunt suficiente pentru a nota sunete mai acute sau mai grave. Aceste linii sunt considerate o continuare a portativului de bază, putând fi folosite atât deasupra, cât şi dedesubtul acestuia.
Music-bar.png Bara de măsură este folosită pentru separarea măsurilor. În cazul portativului general, aceasta se prelungeşte (în sus sau în jos) pentru a-l cuprinde în întregime.
Music-doublebar.png Bara dublă se foloseşte pentru delimitarea a două secţiuni sau fraze muzicale şi în cazul în care intervine, în melodie, o schimbare de tempo, de ritm sau de tonalitate.
Music-dottedbar.png Bara punctată se foloseşte pentru divizarea măsurilor lungi în segmente mai scurte, pentru a fi citite şi înţelese mai uşor.

Clefs[modificare | modificare sursă]

Clefs define the pitch range, or tessitura, of the staff on which it is placed. A clef is usually the leftmost symbol on a staff. Additional clefs may appear in the middle of a staff to indicate a change in register for instruments with a wide range. In early music, clefs could be placed on any of several lines on a staff.

Music-Gclef.png G clef (Treble Clef)
The centre of the spiral defines the line or space upon which it rests as the pitch G above middle C, or approximately 392 Hz. Positioned here, it assigns G above middle C to the second line from the bottom of the staff, and is referred to as the "treble clef." This is the most commonly encountered clef in modern notation, and is used for most modern vocal music.
Music-Cclef.png C clef (Alto Clef)
This clef points to the line (or space, rarely) representing middle C, or approximately 262 Hz. Positioned here, it makes the center line on the staff middle C, and is referred to as the "alto clef." This clef is used in modern notation for the viola. While all clefs can be placed anywhere on the staff to indicate various tessitura, the C clef is most often considered a "movable" clef: it is frequently seen pointing instead to the fourth line and called a "tenor clef". This clef is used very often in music written for bassoon, cello, and trombone; it replaces bass clef when the number of ledger lines above the bass clef staff hinders easy reading.
Music-Fclef.png F clef (Bass Clef)
The line or space between the dots in this clef denotes F below middle C, or approximately 175 Hz. Positioned here, it makes the second line from the top of the staff F below middle C, and is called a "bass clef." This clef appears nearly as often as the treble clef.
Music-neutralclef.png Neutral clef
Used for pitchless instruments, such as some of those used for percussion. Each line can represent a specific percussion instrument within a set, such as in a drum set. Two different styles of neutral clefs are pictured here. It may also be drawn with a separate single-line staff for each untuned percussion instrument.
Octave Clef
Treble and bass clefs can also be modified by octave numbers. An eight or fifteen above a clef raises the intended pitch range by one or two octaves respectively. Similarly, an eight or fifteen below a clef lowers the pitch range by one or two octaves respectively. A treble clef with an eight below is the most commonly used, often used for tenor lines in choral music.

Tablature
For guitars and other plucked instruments it is possible to notate tablature in place of ordinary notes. In this case, a TAB-sign is often written instead of a clef. The number of lines of the staff is not necessarily five: one line is used for each string of the instrument (so, for standard 6-stringed guitars, six lines would be used). Numbers on the lines show on which fret the string should be played. This Tab-sign, like the Percussion clef, is not a clef in the true sense, but rather a symbol employed instead of a clef.

Pauses[modificare | modificare sursă]

Music-breath.png Breath mark
In a score, this symbol tells the performer to take a breath. (or make a slight pause for non-wind instruments). This pause usually does not affect the overall tempo. For stringed instruments it indicates to lift the bow and play the next note with a downward bow.
Music-caesura.png Caesura or Grand Pause
Indicates a brief, silent pause, during which time is not counted. In ensemble playing, time resumes when so indicated by the conductor or leader. More commonly called "railroad tracks" or "tram lines."


Valoarea notelor şi a pauzelor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Accidentals and key signatures[modificare | modificare sursă]

Accidentals modify the pitch of the notes that follow them on the same staff position within a measure, unless cancelled by an additional accidental.

Music-doubleflat.png Double flat
Lowers the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.
Music-sesquiflat.png Flat-and-a-half
Lowers the pitch of a note by three quarter tones. (Used in microtonal music.)
Music-flat.png Flat
Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone.
Music-demiflat.png Demiflat
Lowers the pitch of a note by one quarter tone. (Used in microtonal music.)
Music-natural.png Natural
Cancels a previous accidental, or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the prevailing key signature (such as F-sharp in the key of G major, for example).
Music-demisharp.png Demisharp
Raises the pitch of a note by one quarter tone. (Used in microtonal music.)
Music-sharp.png Sharp
Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone.
Music-sesquisharp.png Sharp-and-a-half
Raises the pitch of a note by three quarter tones. (Used in microtonal music.)
Music-doublesharp.png Double sharp
Raises the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.

Key signatures define the prevailing key of the music that follows, thus avoiding the use of accidentals for many notes. If no key signature appears, the key is assumed to be C major/A minor, but can also signify a neutral key, employing individual accidentals as required for each note. The key signature examples shown here are described as they would appear on a treble staff.

Music-keysigflat.png Flat key signature
Lowers by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space, thus defining the prevailing major or minor key. Different keys are denoted by differing numbers of accidentals, starting with the leftmost, i.e., B♭, and proceeding to the right; for example, if only the first two flats are used, the key is B♭ major/G minor, and all B's and E's are "flattened", i.e. lowered to B♭ and E♭.
Music-keysigsharp.png Sharp key signature
Raises by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space, also defining the prevailing major or minor key. Different keys are denoted by differing numbers of accidentals, also proceeding from left to right; for example, if only the first four sharps are used, the key is E major/C♯ minor, and the corresponding pitches on the staff are raised.

Time signatures[modificare | modificare sursă]

Time signatures define the meter of the music. Music is "marked off" in uniform sections called measures, and time signatures establish the number of beats in each. This is not necessarily intended to indicate which beats are emphasized, however. The same music marked off in measures of a different duration will sound precisely the same if properly played, but since music could be marked off in infinitely many ways, it makes sense to mark it off in a way that conveys information about the way the piece actually sounds, and those time signatures tend to suggest, but only suggest, prevailing groupings of beats or pulses.

Music-timesig.png Specific time
The bottom number represents the note value of the basic pulse of the music (in this case the 4 represents the quarter-note). The top number indicates how many of these note values appear in each measure. This example announces that each measure is the equivalent length of three crotchets (quarter-notes). It was referred to as a "perfect" time.
Music-commontime.png Common time
This symbol is a throwback to sixteenth century rhythmic notation. It once meant the equivalent of 2/4. and now means the equivalent of 4/4 (See imperfect time).
Music-cuttime.png Cut time
Indicates 2/2 time, meaning only two beats per bar but written as four, also called Alla breve.
Music-metronome.png Metronome mark
Written at the start of a score, and at any significant change of tempo, this symbol precisely defines the tempo of the music by assigning absolute durations to all note values within the score. In this particular example, the performer is told that 120 crotchets, or quarter notes, fit into one minute of time.

Note Relationships[modificare | modificare sursă]

Music-tie.png Tie
Indicates that the two notes joined together are to be played as one note. This can also indicate a note sustained over two or more measures.
Music-slur.png Slur
Indicates that the two notes are to be played in one physical stroke, one uninterrupted breath, or (on instruments with neither breath nor bow) connected into a phrase as if played in a single breath.

Slurs and ties are similar in appearance. A tie is distinguishable because it always joins exactly two immediate adjacent notes of the same pitch, whereas a slur may join any number of notes of varying pitches.

Music-legato.png Legato
Notes covered by this sign are to be played with no gaps. Sometimes indistinguishable from a slur.
Music-glissando.png Glissando or Portamento
A continuous, unbroken glide from one note to the next that includes the pitches between. Some instruments, such as the trombone, timpani, non-fretted string instruments, and the human voice can make this glide continuously (portamento), while other instruments such as the piano or mallet instruments will blur the discrete pitches between the start and end notes to mimic a continuous slide (one type of glissando).
Music-ligature.png Ligature
Also known as a phrase mark. Usually appears in music for string instruments to indicate bowing.
Music-triplet.png Triplet
Condenses three notes into the normal duration of two notes. If the involved notes are beamed, the brackets on either side of the number can be omitted. This can be generalized to a tuplet, where a certain number of notes are condensed into the normal duration of the greatest integer power of two notes less than that number, e.g., six notes played in the normal duration of four notes.
Music-triad.png Chord
Three or more notes played simultaneously. If only two notes are played, it is called an interval.
Music-arpeggio.png Rolled chord
Like a chord, except the notes are played in rapid sequence. Also known as a broken or spread chord. (Compare arpeggio.)

Dynamics[modificare | modificare sursă]

Dynamics are indicators of the relative intensity or volume of a musical line.

Music-pianissimo.png Pianissimo
Very soft. Usually the softest indication in a piece of music, though softer dynamics are often specified with additional ps.
Music-piano.png Piano
Soft. Usually the most often used indication.
Music-mezzopiano.png Mezzo-piano
Literally, half as soft as piano.
Music-mezzoforte.png Mezzo-forte
Similarly, half as loud as forte. More commonly used than mezzo-piano. Note: if no dynamic appears, mezzo-forte is assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level.
Music-forte.png Forte
Loud. Used as often as piano to indicate contrast.
Music-fortissimo.png Fortissimo
Very loud. Usually the loudest indication in a piece, though louder dynamics are often specified with additional fs.
Music-sforzando.png Sforzando
Literally "forced", denotes an abrupt, fierce accent on a single sound or chord. Note: when written out in full, it applies to the sequence of sounds or chords under/over which it is placed.
Music-crescendo.png Crescendo
A gradual increase in volume.
Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage.
Music-diminuendo.svg Decrescendo
Also Diminuendo
A gradual decrease in volume. Can be extended in the same manner as crescendo.

Articulation marks[modificare | modificare sursă]

Articulations (or accents) specify how individual notes are to be performed within a phrase or passage. They can be fine-tuned by combining more than one such symbol over or under a note. They may also appear in conjunction with phrasing marks listed above.

Music-staccato.png Staccato
This indicates that the note is to be played shorter than notated, usually half the value, the rest of the metric value is then silent. Staccato marks may thus appear on notes of any value, thus shortening their actual performed duration without speeding up the music itself.
Music-staccatissimo.png Staccatissimo
Indicates a longer silence after the note (as described above), making the note very short. Usually applied to quarter-notes or shorter. (In the past, this marking's meaning was more ambiguous: it sometimes was used interchangeably with staccato, and sometimes indicated an accent and not staccato. These usages are now, almost, defunct, but still appear in some scores.)
Music-marcato.png Accent
The note is played louder or with a harder attack than any surrounding unaccented notes. May appear on notes of any duration.
Music-strong-marcato.png Marcato
The note is played much louder or with a much harder attack than any surrounding unaccented notes. May appear on notes of any duration. Also called petit chapeau.
Music-pizzicato.png Left-hand pizzicato or Stopped note
A note on a stringed instrument where the string is plucked with the left hand (the hand that usually stops the strings) rather than bowed. On the horn, this accent indicates a "stopped note" (a note played with the stopping hand shoved further into the bell of the horn).
Music-snappizzicato.png Snap pizzicato
On a stringed instrument, a note played by stretching a string away from the frame of the instrument and letting it go, making it "snap" against the frame. Also known as a Bartók pizzicato.
Music-harmonic.png Natural harmonic or Open note
On a stringed instrument, denotes that a natural harmonic is to be played. On a valved brass instrument, denotes that the note is to be played "open" (without lowering any valve). In organ music, this denotes that a pedal note is to be played with the heel.
Music-tenuto.png Tenuto
This symbol has two meanings. It usually indicates that it be played for its full value, without any silence between it and the next note, but with a separate attack (non legato). It can also direct the performer to give the note a slight accent. Combining a tenuto with a staccato yields a "portato," which indicates intermediate note-lengths, detached but not quite staccato.
Music-fermata.png Fermata
An indefinitely-sustained note or chord. Usually appears over all parts at the same metrical location in a piece, to show a halt in tempo. It can be placed above or below the note.
Music-upbow.png Up bow or Sull'arco
On a bowed string instrument, the note is played while drawing the bow upward. On a plucked string instrument played with a plectrum or pick (such as a guitar played pickstyle or a mandolin), the note is played with an upstroke. Also note in organ notation, this making indicates to play the pedal note with the toe.
Music-downbow.png Down bow or Giù arco
Like sull'arco, except the bow is drawn downward. On a plucked string instrument played with a plectrum or pick (such as a guitar played pickstyle or a mandolin), the note is played with a downstroke. Also note in organ notation, this marking indicates to play the pedal note with the heel.

Ornaments[modificare | modificare sursă]

Ornaments modify the pitch pattern of individual notes.

Music-trill.png Trill
A rapid alternation between the specified note and the next higher tone or semitone within its duration. Also called a "shake." When followed by a wavy horizontal line, this symbol indicates an extended, or running, trill.
Music-mordent.png Mordent
An insertion of the semitone below the specified note within its value (this particular case can be called a "lower mordent"). Without the vertical line, the inserted semitone is above the specified note, and the ornament is known as an upper mordent.
Music-turn.png Turn
Also known as a gruppetto, combines an upper mordent and a lower mordent, in that order, into the specified note's value. If the symbol is reversed, the lower mordent is played first.
Music-appoggiatura.png Grace note
Also known as an appoggiatura, it means the first half of the principal note's duration has the pitch of the grace note (the first two-thirds if the principal note is a dotted note).
Music-acciaccatura.png Slashed grace note
Also known as an acciaccatura, it means the principal note's duration begins with the pitch of the grace note for only a very small part of the principal note's value.

Octaves[modificare | modificare sursă]

Music-ottavaalta.png Ottava alta
Notes below the dashed line are played one octave higher than notated.
Ottava bassa
Notes above the dashed line are played one octave lower than notated.
Music-quindicesimaalta.png Quindicesima alta
Notes below the dashed line are played two octaves higher.
Quindicesima bassa
Notes above the dashed line are played two octaves lower.

Pedal marks[modificare | modificare sursă]

These pedal marks appear in music for the piano.

Music-pedaldown.png Engage pedal
Tells the pianist to put the sustain pedal down.
Music-pedalup.png Release pedal
Tells the pianist to let the sustain pedal up.
Music-pedal.png Variable pedal mark
More accurately indicates the precise use of the sustain pedal. The extended lower line tells the pianist to keep the sustain pedal depressed for all notes below which it appears. The inverted "V" shape (/\) indicates the pedal is to be momentarily released, then depressed again.

Other Piano Notation[modificare | modificare sursă]

m.d. or MD mano destra (Italian)
Tells the pianist to use the right hand.
m.s. or MS mano sinistra (Italian)
Tells the pianist to use the left hand.


m.d. or MD main droite (French)
Tells the pianist to use the right hand.
m.g. or MG main gauche (French)
Tells the pianist to use the left hand.

Repetition and codas[modificare | modificare sursă]

Music-tremolo.png Tremolo
A rapidly-repeated note. If the tremolo is between two notes, then they are played in rapid alternation. The number of slashes through the stem (or number of diagonal bars between two notes) indicates the frequency at which the note is to be repeated (or alternated). As shown here, the note is to be repeated at a demisemiquaver (thirty-second note) rate.

In percussion notation, tremolos are used to indicate rolls, diddles, and drags. Typically, a single tremolo line on a sufficiently short note (such as a sixteenth) is played as a drag, and a combination of three stem and tremolo lines indicates a double-stroke roll for a period equivalent to the duration of the note. In other cases, the interpretation of tremolos is highly variable, and should be examined by the director and performers.

Music-repeat.png Repeat signs
Enclose a passage that is to be played more than once. If there is no left repeat sign, the right repeat sign sends the performer back to the start of the piece or the nearest double bar.
Music-simile.png Simile marks
Denote that preceding groups of beats or measures are to be repeated.
Music-volte.png Volta brackets (1st and 2nd endings)
Denote that a repeated passage is to be played in different ways on different playings.
Music-dacapo.png Da capo
Tells the performer to repeat playing of the song from its beginning. This is followed by al fine, which means to repeat to the word fine and stop, or al coda, which means repeat to the coda sign and then jump forward.
Music-dalsegno.png Dal segno
Tells the performer to repeat playing of the song starting at the nearest segno. This is followed by al fine or al coda just as with da capo.
Music-segno.png Segno
Mark used with dal segno.
Music-coda.png Coda
Indicates a forward jump in the song to its ending passage, marked with the same sign. Only used after playing through a D.S. al coda or D.C. al coda.

Notaţie specifică anumitor instrumente[modificare | modificare sursă]

Chitară[modificare | modificare sursă]

Semnele ce indică digitaţia folosită pentru chitară pot fi scrise sub, deasupra sau lângă notele muzicale asociate lor.

Simbolul Spaniolă Română
p pulgar degetul mare
i indice degetul arătător
m medio degetul mijlociu
a anular degetul inelar
c, x, e meñique degetul mic

See also[modificare | modificare sursă]