Gramatica limbii engleze

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Gramatica limbii engleze este o colecție de reguli care descrie structura limbii engleze. Aceasta include structura cuvintelor, frazelor și propozițiilor.

Limba engleză are variante istorice, sociale și regionale. Acest articol tratează limba engleză standard, forma de vorbire întâlnită în mass-media, educație, divertisment și guvern, incluzând atât vorbirea formală, cât și cea informală.

Morfologie[modificare | modificare sursă]

Substantivul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Substantivul (The Noun) este partea de vorbire care denumește ființe, obiecte, substanțe, locuri, evenimente și o serie de noțiuni abstracte. În propoziție substantivele, împreună cu verbul sunt parte de vorbire principală. Substantivul are:

  • număr (singular și plural): dog-dogs, bush-bushes

În cele mai multe cazuri pluralul se formează din singular adăugând -s sau -es, dar sunt și forme neregulate (woman/women, medium/media, etc.), incluzând și cazuri în care cele două forme sunt identice (sheep, series). Pentru mai multe detalii vezi Pluralul în limba engleză (en:English plurals)

  • gen: man-woman

Substantivele în limba engleză au gen gramatical doar pentru substantive care sunt considerate ca fiind logic feminine sau masculine: daughter, wife, mother (feminin) si son, husband, father (masculin)

  • caz: the man's-omului (Genitive)

Articolul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Adjectivul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Dacă pentru descrierea unui obiect se folosesc mai multe cuvinte, adjectivele care precedă substantivul se așează în următoarea ordine: [1]

  1. opinie
  2. dimensiune
  3. vechime / vârstă
  4. formă
  5. culoare
  6. origine
  7. material
  8. scop

Pronumele[modificare | modificare sursă]

Numeralul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Verbul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Adverbul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Prepoziția[modificare | modificare sursă]

Sintaxă[modificare | modificare sursă]

Subiectul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Predicatul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Acordul Subiect-Predicat[modificare | modificare sursă]

Complementul direct[modificare | modificare sursă]

Complementul indirect[modificare | modificare sursă]

Complementul prepozițional[modificare | modificare sursă]

Complementul circumstanțial[modificare | modificare sursă]

Atributul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Note[modificare | modificare sursă]

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

Cărți de gramatică a limbii engleze în limba română
Cărți de gramatică în limba engleză
  • Aarts, Bas (). Oxford modern English grammar. Oxford University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-19-953319-0. 
  • Biber, Douglas; Johansson, Stig; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan; Finegan, Edward (). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education Limited. p. 1203. ISBN 0-582-23725-4. 
  • Biber, Douglas; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan; (). Longman student grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson Education Limited. p. 487. ISBN 0-582-23726-2. 
  • Bryant, Margaret (). A functional English grammar. D.C. Heath and company. p. 326. 
  • Bryant, Margaret; Momozawa, Chikara (). Modern English Syntax. Seibido. p. 157. 
  • Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael (). Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. Cambridge University Press. p. 984. ISBN 0-521-67439-5.  A CD-Rom version is included.
  • Celce-Murcia, Marianne; Larsen-Freeman, Diane (). The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL teacher's course, 2nd ed. Heinle & Heinle. p. 854. ISBN 0-8384-4725-2. 
  • Chalker, Sylvia; Weiner, Edmund (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford University Press. p. 464. ISBN 0-19-280087-6. 
  • Cobbett, William (). A Grammar of the English Language, In a Series of Letters: Intended for the Use of Schools and of Young Persons in General, but more especially for the use of Soldiers, Sailors, Apprentices, and Plough-Boys. New York and Chicago: A. S. Barnes and Company. 
  • Cobbett, William (2003, originally 1818). A Grammar of the English Language (Oxford Language Classics). Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-19-860508-0.  Verificați datele pentru: |date= (ajutor)
  • Curme, George O., College English Grammar, Richmond, VA, 1925, Johnson Publishing company, 414 pages . A revised edition Principles and Practice of English Grammar was published by Barnes & Noble, in 1947.
  • Curme, George O. (1978; original 1931, 1935). A Grammar of the English Language: Volumes I (Parts of Speech) & II (Syntax). Verbatim Books. p. 1045. ISBN 0-930454-03-0.  Verificați datele pentru: |date= (ajutor)
  • Declerck, Renaat (). A Comprehensive Descriptive Grammar of English. Kaitakusha,Tokyo. p. 595. ISBN 4-7589-0538-X.  Declerck in his introduction ( states that almost half his grammar is taken up by the topics of tense, aspect and modality. This he contrasts with the 71 pages devoted to these subjects in The Comprehensive Grammar of English. Huddleston and Pullman say they profited from consulting this grammar in their Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. (p. 1765)
  • Dekeyser, Xavier; Devriendt, Betty; Tops, Guy A. J.,; Guekens, Steven; (). Foundations of English Grammar For University Students and Advanced Learners. Uitgeverij Acco, Leuven, Belgium. p. 449. ISBN 978-90-334-5637-4. 
  • Greenbaum, Sidney (). Oxford English Grammar. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 0-19-861250-8. 
  • Greenbaum, Sidney (). A Student's Grammar of the English Language. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. p. 496. ISBN 0-582-05971-2. 
  • Halliday, M. A. K.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M. (revised by) (). An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd. edition. London: Hodder Arnold. p. 700. ISBN 0-340-76167-9. 
  • Huddleston, Rodney D. (1984) Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D. (1988) English grammar: An outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K., ed. (). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge University Press. p. 1860. ISBN 0-521-43146-8. 
  • Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (). A student's introduction to English grammar. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 0-521-61288-8. 
  • Jespersen, Otto. (1937). Analytic Syntax. Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard, 1937. 170 p.
  • Jespersen, Otto. (1909–1949). A modern English grammar on historical principles (Vols. 1-7). Heidelberg: C. Winter.
  • Jespersen, Otto (). Essentials of English Grammar: 25th impression, 1987. London: Routledge. p. 400. ISBN 0-415-10440-8. 
  • Jonson, Ben (). „The English grammar: Made by Ben Jonson for the benefit of all strangers, out of his observation of the English language now spoken and in use”. The Works of Ben Jonson: Volume 7. London: D. Midwinter et al. 
  • Kolln, Martha J. (). Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects, 5th edition. Longman. p. 336. ISBN 0-321-39723-1. 
  • Kolln, Martha J.; Funk, Robert W. (). Understanding English Grammar (8th Edition). Longman. p. 453. ISBN 0-205-62690-4. 
  • Korsakov Andrey|Korsakov, A. K. (Andreĭ Konstantinovich). 1969. The use of tenses in English. Korsakov, A. K. Structure of Modern English pt. 1. at
  • Maetzner, Eduard Adolf Ferdinand, 1805–1892. (). An English grammar; methodical, analytical, and historical. J. Murray, London. Three Volumes, translated by Clair James Grece from the German edition Englische Grammatik: Die Lehre von der Wort- und Satzfügung. Professor Whitney in his Essentials of English Grammar recommends the German original stating "there is an English version, but it is hardly to be used." (p. vi)
  • Meyer-Myklestad, J., (). An Advanced English Grammar for Students and Teachers. Universitetsforlaget-Oslo. p. 627. 
  • Morenberg, Max (). Doing Grammar, 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 352. ISBN 0-19-513840-6. 
  • Poutsma, Hendrik. A grammar of late modern English, Groningen, P. Noordhoff, 1914–29, 2 pt. in 5 v. Contents: pt. I. The sentence: 1st half. The elements of the sentence, 1928. 2d half. The composite sentence, 1929.--pt. II. The parts of speech: section I, A. Nouns, adjectives and articles, 1914. section I, B. Pronouns and numerals, 1916. section II. The verb and the particles, 1926.
  • Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; & Svartvik, Jan. (1972). A grammar of contemporary English. Harlow: Longman.
  • Quirk, Randolph (). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Harlow: Longman. p. 1779. ISBN 0-582-51734-6. 
  • Schibsbye, Knud (). A Modern English Grammar: Second Edition. London: Oxford University Press. p. 390. ISBN 0-19-431327-1.  This book is a translation of Schibsbye's three volume Engelsk Grammatik published between 1957 and 1961. Schibsbye was a student of Jespersen's and co-author of the sixth volume –Morphology –of Jespersen's seven volume Modern English Grammar.
  • Sinclair, John, ed. (1991) Collins COBUILD – English Grammar London: Collins ISBN 0-00-370257-X second edition, 2005 ISBN 0-00-718387-9. Huddleston and Pullman say they found this grammar 'useful' in their Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. (p. 1765) A CD-Rom version of the 1st edition is available on the Collins COBUILD Resource Pack ISBN 0-00-716921-3
  • Sledd, James. (1959) A short introduction to English grammar Chicago: Scott, Foresman.
  • Strang, Barbara M. H. (1968) Modern English structure (2nd ed.) London: Arnold.
  • Thomson, A. J. (Audrey Jean); Martinet, A. V. (Agnes V.) (). A practical English grammar:Fourth Edition. Oxford University Press. p. 384. ISBN 0-19-431342-5. 
  • Visser, F. Th. (Fredericus Theodorus) (). An historical syntax of the English language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07142-3 (set) Verificați valoarea |isbn=: invalid character (ajutor).  4th impression. pts. 1-2. Syntactical units with one verb.--pt.3. 1st half. Syntactical units with two verbs.--pt.3. 2d half. Syntactical units with two and more verbs.
  • Whitney, William Dwight, (1877) Essentials of English Grammar, Boston: Ginn & Heath.
  • Zandvoort, R. W. (1972) A handbook of English grammar (2nd ed.) London: Longmans.
Monografii în limba engleză
  • Adams, Valerie. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London: Longman.
  • Bauer, Laurie. (1983). English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fries, Charles Carpenter. (1952). The structure of English; an introduction to the construction of English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  • Halliday, M. A. K. (1985/94). Spoken and written language. Deakin University Press.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D. (1976). An introduction to English transformational syntax. Longman.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D. (). The Sentence in Written English: A Syntactic Study Based on an Analysis of Scientific Texts. Cambridge University Press. . p. 352. ISBN 0-521-11395-4. 
  • Jespersen, Otto (). Growth and Structure of the English Language. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 244. ISBN 0-226-39877-3. 
  • Jespersen, Otto (). Philosophy of Grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 363. ISBN 0-226-39881-1. 
  • Jespersen, Otto (). Selected Writings. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 820. --includes Jespersen's monographs Negation in English and Other Languages, and A System of Grammar.
  • Kruisinga, E. (1925). A handbook of present-day English. Utrecht: Kemink en Zoon.
  • Leech, Geoffrey N. (1971). Meaning and the English verb. London: Longman.
  • Marchand, Hans. (1969). The categories and types of present-day English word-formation (2nd ed.). München: C. H. Beck.
  • McCawley, James D. (1998). The syntactic phenomena of English (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Onions, C. T. (Charles Talbut), (1904, 1st edition) An advanced English syntax based on the principles and requirements of the Grammatical society. London: Keegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & co. A new edition of An advanced English syntax, prepared from the author's materials by B. D. H. Miller, was published as Modern English syntax in 1971.
  • Palmer, F. R. (1974). The English verb. London: Longman.
  • Palmer, F. R. (1979). Modality and the English modals. London: Longman.
  • Plag, Ingo. (2003). Word-formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Scheurweghs, Gustave. (1959). Present-day English syntax: A survey of sentence patterns. London: Longmans.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă]