Exodul intelectualilor

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Exodul intelectualilor, numit și drenare a inteligenței, exod al creierelor, export al creierelor, scurgerea inteligenței (în engleză brain drain) este o expresie folosită pentru a desemna emigrarea masivă a unor grupuri de intelectuali sau de persoane bine pregătite profesional dintr-o anumită țară. Motivele pot fi variate pentru țara de emigrare, mediul social (lipsa oportunităților, instabilitate politică, criză economică, riscuri de sănătate, persecuție religioasă, etc.) fiind unul dintre motive. Pentru țara țintă pentru imigrare printre motive se pot enumera: oportunități materiale, oportunități de afirmare în carieră, libertate, stabilitate politică, standard de viață ridicat, libertate religioasă, etc..

Deși inițial termenul se referea la personalul tehnic care părăsește o țară, sensul său s-a modificat în „plecarea oamenilor educați sau profesioniști dintr-o țară, sector economic, sau un câmp în altă țară, de obicei pentru o mai bună remunerare sau condițiile de viață mai bune”.

Exemple istorice[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Lincoln C. Chen, M.D., and Jo Ivey Boufford, M.D. "Fatal Flows Doctors on the Move". New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1850–1852 October 27, 2005, Number 17 online version, editorial
  • Cheng, L., & Yang, P. Q. "Global interaction, global inequality, and migration of the highly trained to the United States". International Migration Review, (1998). 32, 626–94.
  • Jeff Colgan, The Promise and Peril of International Trade, (2005) ch 9.
  • David Heenan.Flight Capital: The Alarming Exodus of America's Best and Brightest (2005), brain drain in reverse as immigrants return home
  • Kapur, Devesh; McHale, John (2005). „Give Us Your Best and Brightest: The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World: Center for Global Development: Publications”. Cgdev.org. http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/4415/. 
  • Dowty, Alan (1989). Closed Borders: The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04498-4 
  • Harrison, Hope Millard (2003). Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953–1961. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09678-3 
  • Kemp, Paul. Goodbye Canada? (2003), from Canada to U.S.
  • Khadria, Binod. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India's Brain Drain, (2000)
  • Kuznetsov, Yevgeny. Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad (2006)
  • D. W. Livingstone; The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy (1998), focus on Canada online edition
  • Douglas S. Massey and J. Edward Taylor; International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market, (2003) online edition
  • Mullan, Fitzhugh. "The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain." New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1810–1818 October 27, 2005, Number 17 online version
  • Caglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff. International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain. (2005)
  • Ransford W. Palmer; In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean Praeger Publishers, 1990 online edition
  • Pearson, Raymond (1998). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-17407-1 
  • Ronald Skeldon and Wang Gungwu; Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese 1994 online edition
  • Michael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell. The Human Face of Global Mobility: International Highly Skilled Migration in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific, (2006)
  • Thackeray, Frank W. (2004). Events that changed Germany. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32814-5 
  • David Zweig, Chen Changgui, and Stanley Rosen; China's Brain Drain to the United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s Institute of East Asian Studies, 1995 online edition
  • Sami Mahroum. Highly skilled globetrotters: mapping the international migration of human capital. S Mahroum - R&D Management, 2000.

Referințe online[modificare | modificare sursă]

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]