Partidul Democrat-Republican

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Acest articol se referă la partidul politic american al sfârșitul secolului al 18-lea și începutul seolului al 19-lea. Pentru partidul sud-corean cu un nume similar,, vedeți Democratic Justice Party.

Partidul Democrat-Republican, conform originalului, [The] Democratic-Republican Party, a fost un partid istoric din Statele Unite ale Americii, fondat de Thomas Jefferson și James Madison în jurul anului 1792 și divizat în mai multe fracțiuni în anul 1824, ceea ce a dus la desființarea sa de-facto. Suporterii partidului se identificau în mod obișnuit ca fiind Republicani (în original, Republicans), [1] dar uneori ca Democrați (în original, Democrats). [2] Denominarea "Democratic Republican" era de asemenea utilizată de contemporani, dar mai ales de către oponenții partidului. [3] Partidul Democrat-Republican a fost partidul politic dominant pe scena politică a Statelor Unite între 1800 și 1824, după care, scinzându-se în fracțiuni, a devenit practic un partid defunct.

Jefferson a creat partidul politic ca să se opună politicilor economice și externe ale Federaliștilor ((Federalists), un partid creat un an sau mai devreme de Secretarul Trezoreriei Alexander Hamilton. Partidul Democratic-Republican s-a opus Jay Treaty din 1794 cu Britanicii (atunci la război cu Franca) și au7 sprijinit relațiile bune cu France înainte de 1801. Partidul a insistat pe o construcție strictă a Constituției, și a denunțat multe din propunerile lui Hamilton (în special banca națională) ca neconstituțională. Partidul a favorizat drepturile statale și primare le fermierilor yeoman asupra bancherilor,industrialiștilor,comercianților și ale interese monieds. Acolo a fost mereu o rază de opinii cu problemele Partidului asupra comerțului, lucrărilor publice, și industrializării, care au most mai binevenite de Madison și Democrați decât de Jefferso și Republicani; dar aceasta a fost decât o preferință, nu o o ideologie fixă pe amebele părți. Jefferson a semnat un contract de fondare a unui canal pentru Potomac în 1805; Madison și-a terminat termenul în oficiu votând un contract de lucru public.

Jeffersonian purists, or "Old Republican" wing of the party, led by Jefferson, John Randolph of Roanoke, William H. Crawford, and Nathaniel Macon, favored low tariffs, states' rights, strict construction of the Constitution, and reduced spending. It opposed a standing army. The "National Republicans," led by Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams and John C. Calhoun, eventually favored higher tariffs, a stronger national defense, and "internal improvements" (public works projects).[4] After the Federalist Party broke up in 1815, many former members joined the D-R's nationalist faction.[5]

United States Presidents from the party were: Thomas Jefferson (elected in 1800 and 1804), James Madison (1808 and 1812), and James Monroe (1816 and 1820). The party dominated Congress and most state governments; it was weakest in New England. William H. Crawford was the party's last presidential nominee in 1824 as the party broke up into several factions. One faction, led by Andrew Jackson, would become the modern Democratic Party. Another faction, led by Adams and Clay, was known as the National Republicans. This group evolved into the Whig Party.

Thomas Jefferson, founder of the party.

Fondare[modificare | modificare sursă]

Madison started the party among Congressmen in Philadelphia (the national capital) as the Republican party;[6]

Alegerile prezidențiale ale anilor 1792 și 1796[modificare | modificare sursă]

Puterea partidului în Congress[modificare | modificare sursă]

Historians have used statistical techniques to estimate the party breakdown in Congress. Many Congressmen were hard to classify in the first few years, but after 1796 there was less uncertainty.

Election Year
House 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806
Federalist 37 39 51 47 57 60 38 39 25 24
Democratic-Republican 28 30 54 59 49 46 65 103 116 118
% Democratic-Republican 43% 43% 51% 56% 46% 43% 63% 73% 82% 83%
Federalist 18 16 16 21 22 22 15 9 7 6
Democratic-Republican 8 13 14 11 10 10 17 25 17 28
% Democratic-Republican 31% 45% 47% 34% 31% 31% 53% 74% 71% 82%
Source: Kenneth C. Martis, The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989 (1989); the numbers are estimates by historians.

The affiliation of many Congressmen in the earliest years is an assignment by later historians; these were slowly coalescing groups with initially considerable independent thinking and voting; Cunningham noted that only about a quarter of the House of Representatives, up till 1794, voted with Madison as much as two-thirds of the time, and another quarter against him two-thirds of the time, leaving almost half as fairly independent. Albert Gallatin recalled only two caucuses on legislative policy between 1795 and 1801, one over appropriations for Jay's Treaty, the other over the Quasi-War, and in neither case did the party decide to vote unanimously.[7]

Organizational strategy[modificare | modificare sursă]

Revolution of 1800[modificare | modificare sursă]

Monroe și Adams, 1816 – 1828[modificare | modificare sursă]

Numele partidului[modificare | modificare sursă]

Pretenții la moștenirea partidului[modificare | modificare sursă]

Președinți americani[modificare | modificare sursă]

The following United States Presidents were elected following a process that selected them as a national nominee of the Democratic-Republican party:

In addition, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson identified themselves and their administrations as Democratic-Republican, but ran in elections where opponents were also identified as Democratic-Republican.

Candidați[modificare | modificare sursă]

Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Henry Brooks Adams, History of the United States during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1889; Library of America ed. 1986)
  • Henry Brooks Adams, 'History of the United States during the Administrations of James Madison (1891; Library of America ed. 1986)
  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1980)
  • Beard, Charles A. Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915)
  • Brown, Stuart Gerry. The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison 1954.
  • Chambers, Wiliam Nisbet. Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776-1809 (1963)
  • Cornell, Saul. The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788-1828 (1999) (ISBN 0-8078-2503-4)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. Jeffersonian Republicans: The formation of Party Organization: 1789-1801 (1957)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801-1809 (1963)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1978)
  • Dawson, Matthew Q. Partisanship and the Birth of America's Second Party, 1796-1800: Stop the Wheels of Government. Greenwood, 2000.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995), detailed political history of 1790s
  • Ferling, John. Adams Vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (2004)(ISBN 0-19-516771-6)
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922)
  • Gould, Lewis. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2003) (ISBN 0-375-50741-8) concerns the party founded in 1854
  • Onuf, Peter S., ed. Jeffersonian Legacies. (1993) (ISBN 0-8139-1462-0)
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. et al. eds. Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic (2004)
  • Risjord, Norman K.; The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson (1965) on the Randolph faction.
  • Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1993) detailed narrative of 1790s
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic 1801-1815 (1968), survey of political history
  • Van Buren, Martin. Van Buren, Abraham, Van Buren, John, ed. Inquiry Into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States (1867) (ISBN 1-4181-2924-0)
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935)
  • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005), detailed narrative history, 1800–1860
  • Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), a close reading of Henry Adams (1889–91)

Biografii[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason The Life of Thomas Jefferson (ISBN 0-345-35380-3) (1987)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager," William and Mary Quarterly, 13 (Jan. 1956), 40-52, in JSTOR
  • Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-scale biography
  • Peterson; Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1975), full-scale biography
  • Remini, Robert. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1991), a standard biography
  • Rutland, Robert A., ed. James Madison and the American Nation, 1751-1836: An Encyclopedia. (1994)
  • Schachner, Nathan. Aaron Burr: A Biography (1961),full-scale biography
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. John C. Calhoun, Nationalist, 1782-1828 (1944)

Studii[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Beeman, Richard R. The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788-1801 (1972), on Virginia politics
  • Formisano, Ronald P. The Transformation of Political Culture. Massachusetts Parties, 1790s-1840s (1984) (ISBN 0-19-503509-7)
  • Gilpatrick, Delbert Harold. Jeffersonian Democracy in North Carolina, 1789-1816 (1931)
  • Goodman, Paul. The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts (1964)
  • Klein, Philip Shriver. Pennsylvania Politics, 1817-1832: A Game without Rules 1940.
  • Prince, Carl E. New Jersey’s Jeffersonian Republicans: The Genesis of an Early Party Machine, 1789-1817 (1967)
  • Risjord; Norman K. Chesapeake Politics, 1781-1800 (1978) on Virginia and Maryland
  • Tinkcom, Harry M. The Republicans and Federalists in Pennsylvania, 1790–1801 (1950)
  • Young, Alfred F. The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763-1797 (1967)

Ziare[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Humphrey, Carol Sue The Press of the Young Republic, 1783-1833 (1996)
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson And the Press: Crucible of Liberty (2006) how 4 Republican and 4 Federalist papers covered election of 1800; Thomas Paine; Louisiana Purchase; Hamilton-Burr duel; impeachment of Chase; and the embargo
  • Jeffrey L. Pasley. "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003) (ISBN 0-8139-2177-5)
  • Stewart, Donald H. The Opposition Press of the Federalist Era (1968), highly detailed study of Republican newspapers
  • The complete text, searchable, of all early American newspapers are online at Readex America’s Historical Newspapers, available at research libraries.

Surse originare[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Adams, John Quincy. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848 Volume VII (1875) edited by Charles Francis Adams; (ISBN 0-8369-5021-6). Adams, son of the president, switched and became a Republican in 1808
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. The Making of the American Party System 1789 to 1809 (1965) excerpts from primary sources
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents 1789-1829 (1978), 3 vol; reprints the political newsletters sent out by congressmen
  • Kirk, Russell ed. John Randolph of Roanoke: A study in American politics, with selected speeches and letters, 4th ed., Liberty Fund, 1997, 588 pp. ISBN 0-86597-150-1; Randolph was a leader of the "Old Republican" faction
  • Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826 Volume 2 (1994)

Note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ For examples of original quotes and documents from various states, see Cunningham, Noble E., Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801 (1957), pp. 48, 63-66, 97, 99, 103, 110, 111, 112, 144, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161, 163, 188, 196, 201, 204, 213, 218 and 234.
    See also "Address of the Republican committee of the County of Gloucester, New-Jersey, Gloucester County, December 15, 1800
  2. ^ "Democrat" was used by the party's last presidential nominating committee.„Anti Caucus/Caucus”. Washington Republican. . 
    Mathews, Dictionary of Americanisms (1951)
    The term "Jeffersonian Republican" is primarily a historian's term as only two published sources used this term before 1820. See Young and Minns, The defence of Young and Minns, printers to the state, before the committee of the House of Representatives (Boston: Gilbert & Dean, 1805), 10; and the Northern Whig (Hudson, NY), January 24, 1803, page 3.
  3. ^ A number of newspapers, especially those of a Federalist slant, referred to "Democratic Republicans," "the Democratic Republican ticket," the party's slate (such as "slate of Maryland democratic republicans"), or even "Democratic Republican Members of the Legislature." See The Aurora General Advertiser (Philadelphia), April. 30, 1795, page 3; New Hampshire Gazette (Portsmouth), October 15, 1796, page 3; Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), October 10, 1797, page 3; Columbian Centinel (Boston), September 15, 1798, page 2; Alexandria (VA) Times, October 8, 1798, page 2; Daily Advertiser (New York), Sept 22, 1800, page 2 & November 25, 1800, page 2; The Oracle of Dauphin (Harrisburg), October 6, 1800, page 3; Federal Gazette (Baltimore), October 23, 1800, page 3; The Spectator (New York), October 25, 1800, page 3; Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), November 19, 1800, page 3; Windham (CT) Herald, November 20, 1800, page 2; City Gazette (Charleston), November 22, 1800, page 2; The American Mercury (Hartford), November 27, 1800, page 3; and Constitutional Telegraph (Boston), November 29, 1800, page 3.
  4. ^ Wiltse (1944), Chapters 8–11.
  5. ^ Holt, Michael Fitzgibbon, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party, pp. 2-3, 1999.
  6. ^ James Madison to Thomas Jeffersonian andMarch 2 1794.) "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican Party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose."
  7. ^ Cunningham (1957), 82.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]