Maximele delfice

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Maximele delfice sunt un set de 147 de aforisme înscrise la Delphi. Inițial, s-a spus despre ele că au  fost date de zeul grec Apollo  Oracolului din Delphi și au fost, prin urmare, atribuite lui Apollo însuși.[1] Mai târziu, în secolul al V-lea, filosoful Stobaeus le-a atribuit celor Șapte Înțelepți ai Greciei Antice.[2] Savanții contemporani, cu toate acestea, susțin că autorul  lor original este incert și că cel mai probabil acestea au fost proverbe populare, care au ajuns mai târziu să fie atribuite unor înțelepți.[3] Probabil cea mai faimoasă dintre aceste maxime este Cunoaște-te pe tine însuți!, care a fost gravat pe Templul lui Apollo de la Delphi. Ordinea specifică  și formularea de fiecărei maxime variază între diferite versiuni (traduceri) ale textului.

Cele 147 de maxime de la Delphi[modificare | modificare sursă]

Cele 147 de maxime de la Delphi
No. Greek Romana 
001. Ἕπου θεῷ Asculta zeii. 
002. Νόμῳ πείθου Respecta legea. 
003. Θεοὺς σέβου Venereaza zeii.
004. Γονεῖς αἰδοῦ Respecta-ti parintii.
005. Ἡττῶ ὑπὸ δικαίου Be overcome by justice
006. Γνῶθι μαθών Cunoaste ce ai invatat. 
007. Ἀκούσας νόει Intelege ce auzi.
008. Σαυτὸν ἴσθι Cunoaste-te pe tine insuti.
009. Γαμεῖν μέλλε Insoara-te.
010. Καιρὸν γνῶθι Intelege momentul oportun.
011. Φρόνει θνητά Gandeste ca un muritor.
012. Ξένος ὢν ἴσθι If you are a stranger act like one
013. Ἑστίαν τίμα Honor the hearth (or Hestia)
014. Ἄρχε σεαυτοῦ Controleaza-te.
015. Φίλοις βοήθει Ajuta-ti prietenii.
016. Θυμοῦ κράτει Controleaza-ti mania.
017. Φρόνησιν ἄσκει Exercise prudence
018. Πρόνοιαν τίμα Honor providence
019. Ὅρκῳ μὴ χρῶ Do not use an oath
020. Φιλίαν ἀγάπα Love friendship
021. Παιδείας ἀντέχου Cling to discipline
022. Δόξαν δίωκε Pursue honor
023. Σοφίαν ζήλου Cauta intelepciunea.
024. Καλὸν εὖ λέγε Praise the good
025. Ψέγε μηδένα Find fault with no one
026. Ἐπαίνει ἀρετήν Praise virtue
027. Πρᾶττε δίκαια Practice what is just
028. Φίλοις εὐνόει Be kind to friends
029. Ἐχθροὺς ἀμύνου Watch out for your enemies
030. Εὐγένειαν ἄσκει Practica nobletea caracterului.
031. Κακίας ἀπέχου Shun evil
032. Κοινὸς γίνου Fii impartia.
033. Ἴδια φύλαττε Pazeste ce este al tau.
034. Αλλοτρίων ἀπέχου Shun what belongs to others
035. Ἄκουε πάντα Asculta pe toata lumea.
036. Εὔφημος ἴοθι Pastreaza tacerea.
037. Φίλῳ χαρίζου Ajuta-ti prietenii.
038. Μηδὲν ἄγαν Nimic in excess.
039. Χρόνου φείδου Use time sparingly
040. Ὅρα τὸ μέλλον Prevede viitorul.
041. Ὕβριν μίσει obraznicia
042. Ἱκέτας αἰδοῦ Have respect for suppliants
043. Πᾶσιν ἁρμόζου Be accommodating in everything
044. Υἱοὺς παίδευε Educa pe copii tai.
045. Ἔχων χαρίζου Give what you have
046. Δόλον φοβοῦ Fear deceit
047. Εὐλόγει πάντας Vorbeste frumos despre toata lumea.
048. Φιλόσοφος γίνου Cauta intelepciunea.
049. Ὅσια κρῖνε Choose what is divine
050. Γνοὺς πρᾶττε Actioneaza doar cand stii .
051. Φόνου ἀπέχου Shun murder
052. Εὔχου δυνατά Pray for things possible
053. Σοφοῖς χρῶ Consulta-l pe cel intelept.
054. Ἦθος δοκίμαζε Test the character
055. Λαβὼν ἀπόδος Da inapoi ce ai primit .
056. Ὑφορῶ μηδένα Nu te uita la nimeni de sus.
057. Τέχνῃ χρῶ Use your skill
058. Ὃ μέλλεις, δός Do what you mean to do
059. Εὐεργεσίας τίμα Honor a benefaction
060. Φθόνει μηδενί Nu fi invidios pe nimeni.
061. Φυλακῇ πρόσεχε Be on your guard
062. Ἐλπίδα αἴνει Praise hope
063. Διαβολὴν μίσει Despise a slanderer
064. Δικαίως κτῶ Gain possessions justly
065. Ἀγαθοὺς τίμα Onoreaza oamenii buni.
066. Κριτὴν γνῶθι Know the judge
067. Γάμους κράτει Master wedding-feasts
068. Τύχην νόμιζε Recognize fortune
069. Ἐγγύην φεῦγε Flee a pledge
070. Ἁπλῶς διαλέγου Speak plainly
071. Ὁμοίοις χρῶ Associate with your peers
072. Δαπανῶν ἄρχου Govern your expenses
073. Κτώμενος ἥδου Fii fericit cu ce ai .
074. Αἰσχύνην σέβου Revere a sense of shame
075. Χάριν ἐκτέλει Fulfill a favor
076. Εὐτυχίαν εὔχου Pray for happiness
077. Τύχην στέργε Be fond of fortune
078. Ἀκούων ὅρα Intelege ce ai auzit.
079. Ἐργάζου κτητά Work for what you can own
080. Ἔριν μίσει Despise strife
081. Ὄνειδος ἔχθαιρε Detest disgrace
082. Γλῶτταν ἴσχε Restrain the tongue
083. Ὕβριν ἀμύνου Nu fi obraznic.
084. Κρῖνε δίκαια Judeca drept.
085. Χρῶ χρήμασιν Foloseste ce ai.
086. Ἀδωροδόκητος δίκαζε Judge incorruptibly
087. Αἰτιῶ παρόντα Accuse one who is present
088. Λέγε εἰδώς Spune cand stii.
089. Βίας μὴ ἔχου Do not depend on strength
090. Ἀλύπως βίου Traieste fara regrete.
091. Ὁμίλει πρᾴως Live together meekly
092. Πέρας ἐπιτέλει μὴ ἀποδειλιῶν Finish the race without shrinking back
093. Φιλοφρόνει πᾶσιν Deal kindly with everyone
094. Υἱοῖς μὴ καταρῶ Do not curse your sons
095. Γυναικὸς ἄρχε. Condu sotia ta.
096. Σεαυτὸν εὖ ποίει Benefit yourself
097. Εὐπροσήγορος γίνου Fii politicos.
098. Ἀποκρίνου ἐν καιρῷ Give a timely response
099. Πόνει μετ’ εὐκλείας Struggle with glory
100. Πρᾶττε ἀμετανοήτως Act without repenting
101. Ἁμαρτάνων μετανόει Repent of sins
102. Ὀφθαλμοῦ κράτει Control the eye
103. Βουλεύου χρόνῳ Give a timely counsel
104. Πρᾶττε συντόμως Act quickly
105. Φιλίαν φύλαττε Guard friendship
106. Εὐγνώμων γίνου Be grateful
107. Ὁμόνοιαν δίωκε Pursue harmony
108. Ἄρρητον κρύπτε Keep deeply the top secret
109. Τὸ κρατοῦν φοβοῦ Fear ruling
110. Τὸ συμφέρον θηρῶ Pursue what is profitable
111. Καιρὸν προσδέχου Accept due measure
112. Ἔχθρας διάλυε Do away with enmities
113. Γῆρας προσδέχου Accept old age
114. Ἐπὶ ῥώμῃ μὴ καυχῶ Do not boast in might
115. Εὐφημίαν ἄσκει Exercise (religious) silence
116. Ἀπέχθειαν φεῦγε Flee enmity
117. Πλούτει δικαίως Acquire wealth justly
118. Δόξαν μὴ λεῖπε Do not abandon honor
119. Κακίαν μίσει Despise evil
120. Κινδύνευε φρονίμως Venture into danger prudently
121. Μανθάνων μὴ κάμνε Do not tire of learning
122. Φειδόμενος μὴ λεῖπε Do not stop to be thrifty
123. Χρησμοὺς θαύμαζε Admire oracles
124. Οὓς τρέφεις, ἀγάπα Love whom you rear
125. Ἀπόντι μὴ μάχου Do not oppose someone absent
126. Πρεσβύτερον αἰδοῦ Respect the elder
127. Νεώτερον δίδασκε Teach a youngster
128. Πλούτῳ ἀπίστει Do not trust wealth
129. Σεαυτὸν αἰδοῦ Respect yourself
130. Μὴ ἄρχε ὑβρίζειν Do not begin to be insolent
131. Προγόνους στεφάνου Crown your ancestors
132. Θνῆσκε ὑπὲρ πατρίδος Die for your country
133 Τῷ βίῳ μὴ ἄχθου Do not be discontented by life
134. Ἐπὶ νεκρῷ μὴ γέλα Do not make fun of the dead
135. Ἀτυχοῦντι συνάχθου Share the load of the unfortunate
136. Χαρίζου ἀβλαβῶς Gratify without harming
137. Μὴ ἐπὶ παντὶ λυποῦ Grieve for no one
138. Ἐξ εὐγενῶν γέννα Beget from noble routes
139. Ἐπαγγέλλου μηδενί Make promises to no one
140. Φθιμένους μὴ ἀδίκει Do not wrong the dead
141. Εὖ πάσχε ὡς θνητός Be well off as a mortal
142. Τύχῃ μὴ πίστευε Do not trust fortune
143. Παῖς ὢν κόσμιος ἴσθι As a child be well-behaved
144. Ἡβῶν ἐγκρατής As a youth be self-disciplined
145. Μέσος δίκαιος As of middle-age be just
146. Πρεσβύτης εὔλογος As an old man be sensible
147. Τελευτῶν ἄλυπος On reaching the end be without sorrow

Note[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ Temenos Theon – The Delphic Maxims
  2. ^ Leslie Kurke, Aesopic Conversations: Popular Tradition, Cultural Dialogue, and the Invention of Greek Prose, Princeton University Press, 2010, p. 109.
  3. ^ H. Parke and D. Wormell, The Delphic Oracle, (Basil Blackwell, 1956), vol. 1, p. 389.