Listă de sisteme de scriere

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Sisteme de scriere
Listă de sisteme de scriere
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Această pagină reprezintă o listă de sisteme de scriere, clasificate după caracteristici comune.

Numele obișnuit al sistemului este indicat prima dată (și scris cu litere aldine), iar numele limbilor în care sistemul este folosit este dat în paranteze, mai ales atunci când sistemele de scriere și limbile în care acestea sunt folosite au nume diferite. Alte genuri de informații sunt de asemenea date.

Alfabet Latin Chirilic Armean Grec Logografice & Silabare Hanzi (L) Kana (2S) + Kanji(L) Hangul(Featural-alphabetic S)+limited Hanja(L)
Abjaduri Arabic&Latin Hebrew Abugidauri N, S Indic Ethiopic Thaana Canadian Syllabic

Sisteme de scriere pictografice/idiografice[modificare | modificare sursă]

Opinia argumentată de lingviști precum John DeFrancis sau J. Marshall Unger este că sistemele de scriere ideografice (în care grafemele sunt ideograme reprezentând concepte și idei și nu anumite cuvinte), respectiv sistemele de scriere pictografice (în care grafemele sunt mici simboluri de tipul unor desene) nu sunt capabile de a transmite mesaje de complexitatea celor din limbile moderne. În esență, acești specialiști postulează că niciun sistem de scriere nu poate fi complet pictografic sau ideografic întrucât trebuie să se refere direct la o limbă pentru a avea expresivitatea complexă a respectivei limbi. Unger dispută astfel folosirea așa numitelor Blissymbols în lucrarea sa din 2004, Ideogram.

Although a few pictographic or ideographic scripts exist today, there is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language. Hieroglyphs were commonly thought to be ideographic before they were translated, and to this day Chinese is often erroneously said to be ideographic. In some cases of ideographic scripts, only the author of a text can read it with any certainty, and it may be said that they are interpreted rather than read. Such scripts often work best as mnemonic aids for oral texts, or as outlines that will be fleshed out in speech.

Există sisteme simbolice care reprezintă altceva decât cuvinte dintr-o limbă. Unele dintre acestea sunt:

Silabare[modificare | modificare sursă]

Într-un silabar, grafemele reprezintă foneme sau more. (Note that the 19th century term syllabics usually referred to abugidas rather than true syllabaries.)

Semisilabare: sisteme de scriere partial silabice, partial alphabetice[modificare | modificare sursă]

In aceste sisteme, unele combinatii consoană-vocală sunt scrise ca silabe, iar altele ca și consoană plus vocală. In cazul Persanei vechi, toate vocalele se scriau regardless, so it was effectively a true alphabet despite its syllabic component. In Japanese a similar system plays a minor role in foreign borrowings; for example, [tu] is written [to]+[u], and [ti] as [te]+[i]. Paleohispanic semi-syllabaries behaved as a syllabary for the stop consonants and as an alphabet for the rest of consonants and vowels. The Tartessian or Southwestern script is typologically intermediate between a pure alphabet and the Paleohispanic full semi-syllabaries. Deși litera used to write a stop consonant was determined by the following vowel, as in a full semisilabar, the following vowel was also written, as in an alphabet. Some scholars treat Tartessian as a redundant semi-syllabary, others treat it as a redundant alphabet.

Segmental scripts[modificare | modificare sursă]

A segmental script has graphemes which represent the phonemes (basic unit of sound) of a language.

Note that there need not be (and rarely is) a one-to-one correspondence between the graphemes of the script and the phonemes of a language. A phoneme may be represented only by some combination or string of graphemes, the same phoneme may be represented by more than one distinct grapheme, the same grapheme may stand for more than one phoneme, or some combination of all of the above.

Segmental scripts may be further divided according to the types of phonemes they typically record:

Abjaduri[modificare | modificare sursă]

Un abjad este sistem de scriere segmental continînd symboluri doar pentru consoanăe, sau unde vocalele sunt optional scrise cu diacritice („pointing“).

True alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

A true alphabet contains separate letters (not diacritic marks) for both consonants and vowels.

Linear nonfeatural alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

Linear alphabets are composed of lines on a surface, such as ink on paper.

Featural linear alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

A featural script has elements that indicate the components of articulation, such as bilabial consonants, fricatives, or back vowels. Scripts differ in how many features they indicate.

Manual alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

Manual alphabets are frequently found as parts of sign languages. They are not used for writing per se, but for spelling out words while signing.

Other non-linear alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

These are other alphabets composed of something other than lines on a surface.

Abugide[modificare | modificare sursă]

An abugida, or alphasyllabary, is a segmental script in which vowel sounds are denoted by diacritical marks or other systematic modification of the consonants. Generally, however, if a single letter is understood to have an inherent unwritten vowel, and only vowels other than this are written, then the system is classified as an abugida regardless of whether the vowels look like diacritics or full letters. The vast majority of abugidas are found from India to Southeast Asia and belong historically to the Brāhmī family.

Abugide din Brāhmī family[modificare | modificare sursă]

Alte Abugide[modificare | modificare sursă]

Final consonant-diacritic abugidas[modificare | modificare sursă]

In at least one abugida, not only the vowel but any syllable-final consonant is written with a diacritic. That is, representing [o] with an under-ring, and final [k] with an over-cross, [sok] would written as s̥̽.

Abugide pe baza vocalelor[modificare | modificare sursă]

In a couple abugidas, the vowels are basic, and the consonants secondary. If no consonant is written in Pahawh Hmong, it is understood to be /k/; consonants are written after the vowel they precede in speech. In Japanese Braille, the vowels but not the consonants have independent status, and it is the vowels which are modified when the consonant is y or w.

Undeciphered systems thought to be writing[modificare | modificare sursă]

These writing systems have not been deciphered. In some cases, such as Meroitic, the sound values of the glyphs are known, but the texts still cannot be read because the language is not understood. In others, such as the Phaistos Disc, there is little hope of progress unless further texts are found. Several of these systems, such as Epi-Olmec and Indus, are claimed to have been deciphered, but these claims have not been confirmed by independent researchers. In Vinča and other cases the system, although symbolic, may turn out to not be writing.

Undeciphered manuscripts[modificare | modificare sursă]

A number of manuscripts from comparable recent past may be written in an invented writing system, a cipher of an existing writing system or may only be a hoax.

Other[modificare | modificare sursă]

Phonetic alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

This section lists alphabets used to transcribe phonetic or phonemic sound; not to be confused with spelling alphabets like the NATO phonetic alphabet.

  1. International Phonetic Alphabet
  2. Deseret alphabet
  3. Unifon
  4. Americanist phonetic notation
  5. Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
  6. Shavian alphabet

Special alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

Alphabets may exist in forms other than visible symbols on a surface. Some of these are:

Tactile alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. Braille
  2. Moon type
  3. New York Point

Manual alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. Fingerspelling

For example:

  1. American Sign Language
  2. Korean manual alphabet
  3. Cued Speech

Long-Distance Signaling[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. International maritime signal flags
  2. Morse code
  3. Semaphore

Alternative alphabets[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. Gregg Shorthand
  2. Initial Teaching Alphabet
  3. Pitman Shorthand
  4. Quikscript

Fictional writing systems[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. Aurebesh
  2. D'ni
  3. Goa'uld
  4. Klingon
  5. Tengwar
  6. Ath (alphabet)

Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

Format:Writing systems