|(U.S. National Historic Landmark)|
|Desemnat(ă) ca NHL:||7 ianuarie, 1976|
|Adăugat(ă) registrului NRHP:||7 ianuarie 1976|
|NRHP Reference#:||73000081 |
|Governing body:||Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation|
Taliesin East, de multe ori doar Taliesin /ˌtæl.iˈɛs.ɪn/ situat în Spring Green, Wisconsin, a fost reședința de vară și atelierul arhitectului american Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright a început construirea casei în 1911, după despărțirea de prima soție, Catherine Tobin, și, respectiv, părăsirea casei și a atelierului său din Oak Park, Illinois, ambele întâmplate în 1909. Motivul principal al acestei separării fizice și matrimoniale a fost legătura amoroasă a lui Wright cu Mamah Borthwick Cheney, soția unuia din clienții săi, Edwin Cheney. Casa și atelierul său de iarnă, Taliesin West, fondate în 1937, se găsesc în partea de nord-est a orașului Scottsdale din Arizona.
The valley in which Taliesin sits was originally settled by Wright’s maternal family, the Lloyd Joneses, during the Civil War. Immigrants from Wales, Wright’s maternal grandfather and uncle were Unitarian ministers, and his two aunts began a co-educational school in the family valley in 1887. Wright’s mother, Anna Lloyd Jones Wright, began sending her son to the valley every summer, beginning when he was eleven years old. The family, their ideas, religion, and ideals, greatly influenced the young Wright, who would later change his middle name from Lincoln (in honor of Abraham Lincoln) to Lloyd in deference to this side of the family.
When Wright decided to begin a home in this valley, he chose the name of the Welsh bard Taliesin, whose name means, “shining brow” or “radiant brow.” Wright positioned the home on the “brow” of a hill, a favorite of his from childhood. The home was designed with three wings that included his living quarters, an office, and farm buildings. Aside from placing the building into the landscape, Wright used Taliesin as a way to explore his ideas of Organic architecture. The chimneys and stone piers were built from local limestone, laid by the stonemasons in a way that evoked the outcroppings of Wisconsin’s surrounding Driftless Area (the area unaccompanied by glacial drift) and sand from the nearby Wisconsin River was mixed into the stucco walls to evoke the river's sandbars.
Wright and Mamah Borthwick (now going by her maiden name) moved into Taliesin shortly after Christmas, 1911. On August 15, 1914, while Wright was in Chicago completing a large project, Midway Gardens, Julian Carlton, a manservant whom Wright had hired two months earlier (along with his wife, Gertrude, who served as cook), set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin and murdered seven people with an axe as the fire burned. The dead were: Mamah, her two children John and Martha, Thomas Brunker, the foreman, Emil Brodelle, a draftsman, David Lindblom, a landscape gardener, and Ernest Weston, the son of the carpenter William Weston. Two victims survived the mêleé--William Weston and draftsman Herb Fritz--and the elder Weston helped to put out the fire that almost completely consumed the residential wing of the house. Carlton, hiding in the unlit furnace, survived the fire but died in jail six weeks later; Gertrude also survived, having escaped the burning building through the basement; she denied any knowledge of her husband's actions.
Wright eventually rebuilt the living quarters, naming it Taliesin II. These living quarters were again destroyed by fire on April 22, 1925. According to Wright in his autobiography, the fire appeared to have begun near a telephone in his bedroom. Wright also mentioned a lightning storm approaching immediately before noticing the fire. Wright scholars speculate that the storm may have caused an electrical surge through the telephone system, sparking the fire. Wright began the rebuilding of Taliesin, which he now named Taliesin III, shortly afterwards.
Wright's interaction with Taliesin would last for the rest of his life and eventually he would purchase the surrounding land, creating an estate of 593 acres (2.4 km²). Over the following decades, Wright used the house as an experiment, continuously changing it, often using his apprentices in the Taliesin Fellowship(founded in 1932) as the workforce he also invited artists to stay and work with him in the Deco Decorative movement, he started and mentored well known artists such as Santiago Martinez Delgado. This was particularly true once he began a winter home, Taliesin West, in Scottsdale, Arizona (1937-1959) in 1937. After this, Wright and the Taliesin Fellowship would "migrate" between the two homes each year. This allowed Wright the ability to return to each home with a new perspective. To Wright, Taliesin was perfected with each change, yet subject to continual evolution.
In 1940, Frank Lloyd Wright and his third wife, Olgivanna (December 27, 1898 - March 1, 1985) formed the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, which still exists. Upon Wright's death in 1959, ownership of the Taliesin estate in Spring Green, as well as Taliesin West, passed into the hands of the foundation. The foundation also owns Frank Lloyd Wright’s archives,and runs a school, the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture. The architectural restoration of the Taliesin estate in Wisconsin is under the supervision of another non-profit organization established in 1991, Taliesin Preservation, Inc. The entire Taliesin estate is a National Historic Landmark.
- ^ „Taliesin East”. National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1309&ResourceType=District. Accesat la 30 iunie 2008.
- ^ „National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 15 aprilie 2008. http://www.nr.nps.gov/.
- ^ a b Welcome to The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation
- ^ Welcome to The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation
- ^ Taliesin, the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture | Building Architects since 1932
- ^ http://www2.cr.nps.gov/tps/standguide/index.htm
- ^ Welcome to Taliesin Preservation, Inc
Legături externe [modificare]
- The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Information on the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, his Archives, the Taliesin Fellowship, and tours
- The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, the official website of the school
- Taliesin Preservation, Inc. Restoration and tours of Taliesin.
- website with pictures of architecture.The Taliesin Fellowship Publication (Vol. 1, No. 2, February 1941) Historical Document