New Deal

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stanga sus:. Tennessee Valley Authority, parte din New Deal, fiind introdusă ca lege în 1933
Dreapta sus:Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a fost responsabil pentru inițiativele și programele cunoscute ca denumire colectivă sub numele de New Deal
Jos: O pictură murală făcută de unul dintre artiștii angajați de New Deal.

New Deal (Noua Învoială sau Noua Orientare) a fost o serie de programe economice adoptate în Statele Unite între anii 1933 și 1936. Programele au implicat decrete prezidențiale sau legi adoptate de Congresul Statelor Unite ale Americii în timpul primului mandat al președintelui Franklin D. Roosevelt. Programele au fost adoptate ca răspuns la Marea criză economică, și s-a concentrat asupra a ceea ce istoricii numesc "cele 3 R": Relief, Recovery, Reform (Asistență, Recuperare/Revenire și Reformă) Asistență pentru șomeri și săraci, Recuperare a economiei la nivel normal și reforma sistemului financiar pentru a preveni repetarea depresiei.

Preambul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Rata şomajului în SUA între anii 19101960, anii Marii crize economice (19291939) sunt evidențiate cu culoarea roșie.

La 29 octombrie 1929]], în mandatul președintelui republican Herbert Hoover a avut loc Joia Neagră, adică prăbușirea bursei de acțiuni. De obicei această dată este asociată cu începutul Marii crize economice în Statele Unite. La alegerile prezidențiale din 1932 Roosevelt a candidat împotriva lui Hoover, campania electorală a lui Roosevelt având ca temă „Omul uitat la baza piramidei sociale”. Roosevelt a promis alegătorilor un pachet consistent de programe care prevedea o implicare mai mare a statului în economie și la permiterea accesului mai larg al „Omului uitat la baza piramidei sociale” la viața publică americană. Pachetul de programe economice viza implicarea consistentă a statului în trei domenii ale economiei: industria, agricultura și sistemul bancar. Acest pachet de programe economice i-a adus lui Roosevelt victoria categorică în alegerile prezidențiale din 1932 în fața lui Herbert Hoover. New Deal a produs o realiniere politică, făcând ca Partidul Democrat să dețină majoritatea majoritatea (și președinția la Casa Albă pentru șapte din cele nouă ani din 1933 până în 1969), având la bază idei liberale, Sudul alb, democrați tradiționali, mașini de oraș mari, sindicate nou împuternicite și minorități etnice. Mulți istorici disting două faze ale New Deal-ului: "Primul New Deal" (1933-1934) "Al Doilea New Deal" (1935-1938), cea de a doua fiind una mai liberală și mai controversată.[1]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ Alonzo L. Hamby (2004). [http://books.google.com/books?id=XlxWV5C8saEC&pg=PA418 For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the World Crisis of the 1930s]. Simon and Schuster. p. 418. http://books.google.com/books?id=XlxWV5C8saEC&pg=PA418 

Cercetări[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • en Badger, Anthony J. The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933–1940. (2002) general survey from British perspective
  • en Chafe, William H. ed. The Achievement of American Liberalism: The New Deal and its Legacies (2003)
  • en Conkin, Paul K. The New Deal. (1967), a brief New Left critique.
  • en Dubofsky, Melvyn, ed. The New Deal: Conflicting Interpretations and Shifting Perspectives. (1992), reader
  • en Eden, Robert, ed. New Deal and Its Legacy: Critique and Reappraisal (1989), essays by scholars
  • en Hiltzik, Michael. The New Deal: A Modern History (2011), popular history by journalist; 512pp
  • en Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940. (1963). A standard interpretive history.
  • en Kennedy, David M. "What the New Deal Did," Political Science Quarterly, 124 (Summer 2009), 251–68.
  • en Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945. (1999), survey; Pulitzer Prize
  • en Kirkendall, Richard S. "The New Deal As Watershed: The Recent Literature", The Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Mar., 1968), pp. 839–852. in JSTOR, historiography
  • en McElvaine Robert S. The Great Depression 2nd ed (1993), social history
  • en Polenberg, Richard. "The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933–1945 A Brief History with Documents" ISBN 0-312-13310-3
  • en Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, (1957–1960), the classic narrative history.
  • en Shlaes, Amity. The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression (2007)
  • en Sitkoff, Harvard. ed. Fifty Years Later: The New Deal Evaluated. (1984). A friendly liberal evaluation.
  • en Wecter, Dixon. The Age of the Great Depression, 1929–1941 (1948), social history

Biografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • en Beasley, Maurine H., Holly C. Shulman, Henry R. Beasley. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia (2001)
  • en Brands, H.W. Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (2008)
  • en Charles, Searle F. Minister of Relief: Harry Hopkins and the Depression (1963)
  • en Cohen, Adam, Nothing to Fear: FDR's Inner Circle and the Hundred Days that Created Modern America (2009)
  • en Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. (1985). An encyclopedic reference.
  • en Ingalls, Robert P. Herbert H. Lehman and New York's Little New Deal (1975)
  • en Pederson, William D. ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (Blackwell Companions to American History) (2011); 35 essays by scholars; many deal with politics
  • en Irving Bernstein. Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (1970), cover labor unions
  • en Best, Gary Dean. Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933–1938. (1990) ISBN 0-275-93524-8; conservative perspective
  • en Blumberg Barbara. The New Deal and the Unemployed: The View from New York City (1977).
  • en Bremer William W. "Along the American Way: The New Deal's Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed". Journal of American History 62 (December 1975): 636–652. in JSTOR
  • en Brock William R. Welfare, Democracy and the New Deal (1988), a British view
  • en Burns, Helen M. The American Banking Community and New Deal Banking Reforms, 1933–1935 (1974)
  • en Burton W. Folsom. New Deal or Raw Deal? : How FDR's Economic Legacy has Damaged America (2008) ISBN 1-4165-9222-9, conservative interpretation
  • en Gordon, Colin. New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics, 1920–1935 (1994)
  • en Grant, Michael Johnston. Down and Out on the Family Farm: Rural Rehabilitation in the Great Plains, 1929–1945 (2002)
  • en Hawley, Ellis W. The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (1966)
  • en Howard, Donald S. The WPA and Federal Relief Policy (1943)
  • en Huibregtse, Jon R. American Railroad Labor and the Genesis of the New Deal, 1919–1935; (University Press of Florida; 2010; 172 pages)
  • en Jensen, Richard J. "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression", Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 (1989) 553–83. in JSTOR
  • en Leff, Mark H. The Limits of Symbolic Reform: The New Deal and Taxation (1984)
  • en Lindley, Betty Grimes and Ernest K. Lindley. A New Deal for Youth: The Story of the National Youth Administration (1938)
  • en Mathews, Jane De Hart. "Arts and the People: The New Deal Quest for a Cultural Democracy", Journal of American History 62 (1975): 316–39, in JSTOR
  • en Malamud; Deborah C. "'Who They Are—or Were': Middle-Class Welfare in the Early New Deal" University of Pennsylvania Law Review v 151 No. 6 2003. pp 2019+.
  • en McKinzie, Richard. The New Deal for Artists (1984), well illustrated scholarly study
  • en Meriam; Lewis. Relief and Social Security The Brookings Institution. 1946. Highly detailed analysis and statistical summary of all New Deal relief programs
  • en Mitchell, Broadus. Depression Decade: From New Era through New Deal, 1929–1941 (1947), survey by economic historian
  • en Parker, Randall E. Reflections on the Great Depression (2002) interviews with 11 leading economists
  • en Jim Powell FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression (2003) ISBN 0-7615-0165-7
  • en Rosenof, Theodore. Economics in the Long Run: New Deal Theorists and Their Legacies, 1933–1993 (1997)
  • en Rosen, Elliot A. Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery (2005) ISBN 0-8139-2368-9
  • Rothbard, Murray. America's Great Depression (1963). ibertarian critique
  • Saloutos, Theodore. The American Farmer and the New Deal (1982).
  • en Singleton, Jeff. The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression (2000)
  • en Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. "State Capacity and Economic Intervention in the Early New Deal". Political Science Quarterly 97 (1982): 255–78. at JSTOR
  • en Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. "Explaining New Deal Labor Policy" American Political Science Reform (1977) 84:1297–1304 in JSTOR
  • en Zelizer; Julian E. "The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal: Fiscal Conservatism and the Roosevelt Administration, 1933–1938" Presidential Studies Quarterly (2000) 30#2 pp: 331+.

Politici[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • en Alswang, John. The New Deal and American Politics (1978), voting analysis
  • en Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope (2006), popular account
  • en Badger, Anthony J. FDR: The First Hundred Days (2008)
  • en Badger, Anthony J. New Deal / New South: An Anthony J. Badger Reader (2007)
  • en Bernstein, Barton J. "The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform". In Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, pp. 263–88. (1968), an influential New Left attack on the New Deal.
  • en Best, Gary Dean. The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933–1938 (1993) ISBN 0-275-94350-X
  • en Best, Gary Dean. Retreat from Liberalism: Collectivists versus Progressives in the New Deal Years (2002) ISBN 0-275-94656-8
  • en Brinkley, Alan. The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. (1995) what happened after 1937
  • Cobb, James and Michael Namaroto, eds. The New Deal and the South (1984).
  • en Conklin, Paul K. "The Myth of New Deal Radicalism" in Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) Brandywine Press, ISBN 1-881089-97-5
  • en Domhoff, G. William, and Michael J. Webber. Class and Power in the New Deal: Corporate Moderates, Southern Democrats, and the Liberal-Labor Coalition (Stanford University Press; 2011) 304 pages; uses class dominance theory to examine the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the National Labor Relations Act, and the Social Security Act.
  • en Ekirch Jr., Arthur A. Ideologies and Utopias: The Impact of the New Deal on American Thought (1971)
  • en Fraser, Steve and Gary Gerstle, eds., The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, (1989), essays focused on the long-term results.
  • en Garraty, John A. "The New Deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression", American Historical Review, (1973) 78#4 pp. 907–44. in JSTOR
  • en Higgs, Robert. Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government (1987), libertarian critique
  • en Ladd, Everett Carll and Charles D. Hadley. Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s (1975), voting behavior
  • en Lowitt, Richard. The New Deal and the West (1984).
  • en Manza; Jeff. "Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal" Annual Review of Sociology: 2000, 26 (2000): 297–322.
  • en Milkis, Sidney M. and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. The New Deal and the Triumph of Liberalism (2002)
  • en Patterson, James T. The New Deal and the States: Federalism in Transition (Princeton UP, 1969).
  • en Sitkoff, Harvard. A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (2008)
  • en Smith, Jason Scott. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933–1956 (2005).
  • en Sternsher, Bernard ed., Hitting Home: The Great Depression in Town and Country (1970), essays by scholars on local history
  • en Szalay, Michael. New Deal Modernism: American Literature and the Invention of the Welfare State (2000)
  • en Tindall George B. The Emergence of the New South, 1915–1945 (1967). survey of entire South
  • en Trout Charles H. Boston, the Great Depression, and the New Deal (1977)
  • en Venn, Fiona (1998). The New Deal. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 1-57958-145-5 
  • en Ware, Susan. Beyond Suffrage: Women and the New Deal (1981)

Surse primare[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • en Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1951 (1951) full of useful data; online
  • en Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (1976) part 1 online; part 2 online
  • en Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls
  • en Carter, Susan B. et al. eds. The Historical Statistics of the United States (6 vol: Cambridge UP, 2006); huge compilation of statistical data; online at some universities
  • en Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935–1971 3 vol (1972) summarizes results of each poll.
  • en Lowitt, Richard and Beardsley Maurice, eds. One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickock Reports on the Great Depression (1981)
  • en Moley, Raymond. After Seven Years (1939), conservative memoir by ex-Brain Truster
  • en Nixon, Edgar B. ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs (3 vol 1969), covers 1933–37. 2nd series 1937–39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol print edition at some academic libraries.
  • en Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ed. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (13 vol, 1938, 1945); public material only (no letters); covers 1928–1945.
  • en Zinn, Howard, ed. New Deal Thought (1966), a compilation of primary sources.

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