Moby Dick

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Moby Dick
Moby-Dick FE title page.jpg
Pagina de titlu a primei ediții tipărite a romanului Moby Dick.
Informații generale
Autor Herman Melville
Gen roman de aventură
Ediția originală
Titlu original Moby-Dick; sau The Whale
Editură Richard Bentley
Limbă originală Englezǎ
Țară de prima lansare SUA
Data publicării 1851
Număr de pagini 634
OCLC 30847311

Moby Dick este un roman al scriitorului american Herman Melville, publicat prima dată în 1851. Este considerat a fi o capodoperă a literaturii universale. Romanul istorisește aventurile căpitanului Ahab al navei Pequod, obsedat de dorința de a ucide legendara balenă albă, Moby Dick, care îi cauzase pierderea unei gambe. Povestitor este un membru al echipajului, Ishmael.

Rezumat[modificare | modificare sursă]

Information icon.svg Atenție: urmează detalii despre narațiune și/sau deznodământ.
Coperta romanului a ediţiei româneşti din 1938.

Povestea descrie aventura marinarului Ishmael, la bordul balenierei Pequod, comandată de căpitanul Ahab. Înainte ca Ishmael să fi ajuns la bordul balenierei el se află în New Bredford. La un han de la docuri a ajuns partener cu Queequeg, un om sălbatic care a fost în trecut vânător de balene. Astfel au ajuns împreună pe vasul "Pequod". Ishmael își dă în curând seama că Ahab este în căutarea unei anumite balene, un cașalot alb, numit Moby Dick, o creatură feroce și enigmatică. În trecut, Moby Dick i-a distrus barca căpitanului Ahab și i-a mâncat un picior, iar acum acesta vrea răzbunare.

Personaje[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Captain Ahab
  • Ishmael
  • Moby Dick
  • Bartleby
  • Elijah
  • Stubb
  • Queequeg
  • Starbuck
  • Tashtego
  • Dough-boy
  • Flask
  • Daggoo
  • Fedallah
  • Pippin ("Pip")

Recepție[modificare | modificare sursă]

Abia la câțiva ani după moartea lui Melville, romanul Moby Dick a fost redescoperit de public, recunoscându-i-se calitățile literare care i-au asigurat o popularitate crescândă ca una din creațiile cele mai importante ale literaturii universale. Proza lui Melville este complexă și de o imaginație bogată, ceea ce a făcut din el unul din cei mai fini stiliști ai limbajului din literatura americană, alături de William Faulkner, Henry James și Thomas Pynchon. Romanul este dedicat prietenului său, scriitorul Nathaniel Hawthorne, care i-a influențat scrierile.

Adaptări[modificare | modificare sursă]

Romanul a constituit sursa de inspirație a multor adaptări: de film, televiziune, teatru, benzi desenate, operă etc.

Film[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • În 1926 a apărut filmul mut The Sea Beast, cu John Barrymore ca Ahab cu o logodnică și un frate malefic, inspirată după carte[1]. A fost refăcut în 1930 ca Moby Dick[2], o versiune în care Ahab ucide balena și se întoarce acasǎ la femeia pe care o iubește
  • Moby Dick, a 1956 film directed by John Huston and starring Gregory Peck as Captain Ahab, with screenplay by Ray Bradbury.
  • Tom and Jerry: Dicky Moe was directed by Gene Deitch and released in 1962. The peg-legged but unnamed Ahab-like captain of the Komquot is maniacally obsessed with hunting the great white whale Dicky Moe. When his crew desert, he shanghais Tom and makes him do the work of the whole crew while seamouse Jerry bedevils him. When Dicky Moe is finally sighted, the captain fires a harpoon gun but the rope attached to the harpoon is also looped around Tom's leg and drags the cat off the ship. The whale swims off with Tom lashed to its side and the captain screaming, "Come back with my whale!"
  • Moby Dick, featuring Jack Aranson as Captain Ahab, was filmed in 1978 and released in November 2005 on DVD. The director was Paul Stanley.[3]
  • The 1984 animated film Samson & Sally:Song of the Whales involves a young white whale named Samson who searches for Moby-Dick after hearing a legend that Moby-Dick would one day return to save all the whales. The sinking of the Pequod is shown as the young whale's mother tells him the story of Moby Dick. The film was alternately titled "The Secret of Moby Dick" in some other countries.
  • The 1986 animated film Dot and the Whale involves the character Dot embarking on a search for Moby-Dick in hope of helping a beached whale.
  • In 1999, a 25-minute paint-on-glass-animated adaptation was made by the Russian studio Man and Time, directed by Natalya Orlova. [1] It was made for the British market, and so was in English. [2] Rod Steiger was the voice of Captain Ahab. The film came in third place at the 5th Open Russian Festival of Animated Film. It is currently sold on DVD as part of the "World Literary Classics" series.
  • Capitaine Achab a 2004 French movie directed by Philippe Ramos, with Valérie Crunchant and Frédéric Bonpart.[4]
  • Moby Dick, a 2010 film adaptation starring Barry Bostwick as Ahab and made by The Asylum.[5]

Televiziune[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Un episod din Mr. Magoo din 1964 îl arǎta pe Ishmael Quincey Magoo vânând-o pe marea balenǎ albǎ.[6]
  • În 1967, the Hanna-Barbera series Moby Dick and Mighty Mightor featured the whale in adventures with two boys he had rescued.
  • Un episod din Beetlejuice din 1991 cu titlul "Moby Richard"[7]
  • A Japanese animated adaptation of Moby-Dick, called Hakugei: Legend of the Moby Dick, was produced in 1997.
  • Moby Dick, un film de televiziune din 1998 cu Patrick Stewart în rolul lui Ahab și Gregory Peck ca părintele Mapple (pentru care a primit Globul de Aur)[8]
  • Moby Dick et le Secret de Mu, a 2005 Luxembourgian/French animated series produced by Benoît Petit.[9]
  • Moby Dick, a 2011 television mini series directed by Mike Barker, starring William Hurt as Ahab and Ethan Hawke as Starbuck.[10]
  • Age of the Dragons is a 2011 made-for-television fantasy film. It was directed by Ryan Little and adapts the Moby-Dick story to a fantasy setting with a white dragon.[11]
  • On the April 29, 2011 broadcast of Phineas and Ferb, in the episode "Belly of the Beast", the boys create a giant mechanical shark for the annual Danville Harbor celebrations. Candace and her friend Stacy join a peg-legged Ahab-like captain aboard his ship The Pea-quad in chasing the giant shark, hurling harpoons made of toilet plungers. When the captain is supposedly devoured by the shark, Candace assumes command and an Ahab-like personality, even paraphrasing Ahab's curse: "From Danville Harbor I stab at thee; for bustings' sake I spit my last spit at thee!". The rope attached to one of the plunger harpoons fired from the cannon gets looped around her ankle and she becomes lashed to the side of the shark in Ahab-fashion.
  • "Möbius Dick" is a sixth-season episode of the series Futurama that first aired on August 4, 2011. Leela becomes obsessed with hunting a four-dimensional space whale.
  • "Ramlak Rising" is a first-season episode of the 2011 ThunderCats series that first aired on August 5, 2011. The captain of a ship obsessively hunts a creature called a Ramlak.
  • One piece manga Yonkou Whitebeard's ship is named Moby Dick

Radio[modificare | modificare sursă]

Teatru[modificare | modificare sursă]

Featured: Martin Epstein as Ahab and Michael Berry as Starbuck in Works Productions' Moby Dick.
  • Moby Dick Rehearsed, cu Orson Welles Orson Welles, filmatǎ în 1955.
  • Scriitorul Julian Rad și Hilary Adamsau adaptat Moby Dick într-o piesǎ care a avut premiera în 2003, la New York.
  • Moby Dick! The Musical
  • Songs and Stories From Moby Dick
  • 2000 Moby Dick
  • 2008 Moby Dick
  • Compozitorul Jake Heggie a adaptat cartea pentru operǎ la inaugurarea Operei Winspear. A avut premiera în aprilie 30, 2010 cu Ben Heppner ca Ahab.

Muzicǎ[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • Moby Dick, a cantata for male soloists, chorus and orchestra, written in 1938 by the composer Bernard Herrmann, and dedicated to Charles Ives. Sir John Barbirolli conducted the New York Philharmonic in its premiere.
  • W. Francis McBeth composed a five-movement suite for wind band named Of Sailors and Whales which is based on scenes from the book Moby-Dick. The bombastic suite begins with the quiet "Ishmael", which builds to a heavy climax. "Queequeg" follows with a flitting melody and ends with bleak chords and finally a quick note at the end. The middle movement "Father Mapple" is supposed to be a hymn that an imaginary man sings during the voyage. This movement is actually sung by the band, and begins very wearily but has a rather strong ending. The next movement is "Ahab" which readily depicts the captain. The same is true of "The White Whale", the final movement of the suite and by far one of the most fearsome pieces composed for a wind band. Each movement is preceded by some text supposed to be read to give an indication of the movement.
  • Composer Peter Westergaard has composed Moby Dick: Scenes From an Imaginary Opera, an operatic work for five soloists, chorus and chamber orchestra entitled The work was premiered in October 2004 in Princeton, New Jersey. Its libretto draws on the parts of the novel that deal with Ahab's obsession with the whale.
  • Progressive metal band Mastodon released Leviathan in 2004. The album is loosely based on the Herman Melville novel Moby-Dick.

Benzi desenate[modificare | modificare sursă]

Early Classic Comics version
  • In 1956 Dell Comics adapted the story in Four Color #717[12]
  • In 1965 Adventure Comics #332 featured "The Super-Moby Dick of Space" with the Legion of Super-Heroes' Lightning Lad in a role analogous to that of Captain Ahab, after he has to have a robotic arm replace his own due to the Creature making his lightning bolts reflect back at him, and concussion from a crash gives him a more angry personality. However instead of killing the creature he shrinks it down to it's original size, it is reveald to be a metal-eating creature tha twas accidentally grown to gigantic size by a Scientist.
  • In 1976 Marvel Comics adapted the story in Marvel Classics Comics #8.[13]
  • In 1977 King Features adapted the story in King Classics #3.[14]
  • A 1990 Classics Illustrated graphic novel by artist Bill Sienkiewicz and writer D.G. Chichester
Cover of Classics Illustrated graphic novel done by Bill Sienkiewicz
  • Also in 1990, Pendulum Press adapted the story in issue #1 of Pendulum's Illustrated Stories.[15]
  • A 1998 graphic novel by artist Will Eisner
  • 2000AD's series A.H.A.B. borrows the storyline and the names of several characters from Moby Dick.
  • A French BD from 2005 takes a sci-fi approach similar to Bradbury's, below.
  • In 2008 Marvel Comics released Marvel Illustrated: Moby Dick, a six-issue adaptation.[16]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

  • en Bryant, John. "Moby-Dick as Revolution." The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville. Ed. Robert S. Levine. Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 65–90.
  • en Cheever, Susan (2006). American Bloomsbury: Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau; Their Lives, Their Loves, Their Work. Detroit: Thorndike Press. Large print edition. ISBN 0-7862-9521-X.
  • en Mellow, James R (1980). Nathaniel Hawthorne in His Times. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-365-27602-0.
  • en Miller, Edwin Haviland (1991). Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-332-2.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]