Lista conducătorilor Saxoniei

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Blazonul Saxoniei începând cu instaurarea Casei de Ascania la conducerea ducatului în 1180

Listă a conducătorilor Saxoniei.

Duci timpurii[modificare | modificare sursă]

Dinastia Ottoniană[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Liudolf, Duke of Saxony.jpg Liudolf I 850864 sau 866
Bruno dux.jpg Bruno 864 sau 866 - 880
Otto I, Duke of Saxony.jpg Otto I 880912
Ptacnik.jpg Henric I 912936
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg Otto al II-lea cel Mare 936961

Dinastia Billungilor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Herman 961 - 973
Bernard I 9731011
Bernard al II-lea 10111059
Wartburg-Duke.Orthilius.von.Sachsen.JPG Ordulf 10591072
Magnus 10721106

Dinastia Süpplingenburg[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Lotar III.JPG Lothar I 11061137

Dinastia Welfilor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Henry the Proud.jpg Henric al II-lea cel Mândru 11371139

Dinastia Ascanienilor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Albert I of Brandenburg.jpg Albert Ursul 11391142

Dinastia Welfilor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Lev Jindrich.jpg Henric al III-lea Leul 11421180

Dinastia Ascanienilor[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Bernhard von Sachsen.jpg Bernard al III-lea 11801212
Albrecht-I-von-Sachsen.jpg Albert I 1212 - 1260 f
Ioan I 12601282
Albrecht 2 Sachsen.jpg Albert al II-lea 12601296
Albert al III-lea, 12821296
POSSE.jpg Eric I, 12821296
Ioan al II-lea, 12821296

Duci de Saxa-Lauenburg[modificare | modificare sursă]

Duci de Saxa-Bergedorf-Mölln[modificare | modificare sursă]
Duci de Saxa-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg[modificare | modificare sursă]

Duci de Saxa-Lauenburg (1401–1876)[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Dată Note
Dinastia Ascanienilor, pe linia Lauenburg
Eric V 1401–1436. joint rule with his father Eric IV (until 1411), his younger brother John IV (until 1414), and his youngest brother Bernard II (from 1426)
John IV 1401–1411/1414 joint rule with his father Eric IV (until 1411) and his elder brother Eric V, brother of the following
Bernard II[2] 1426–1463 joint rule with his brother Eric V until 1436. Father of the following duke
John V[3] 1463–1507 father of the following duke
MagnusISaLauenb.JPG Magnus I 1507–1543. father of the following duke
Francis I[4] 1543–1571 and again 1573–1581. joint rule with his son Francis II from 1578. Father of the following three dukes
Magnus II[5] 1571–1573. brother of the following two dukes
Franz der 2. Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg.JPG Francis II[6] 1578–1619. vice-regent from 1578, administrator from 1581. Joint rule with his brother Maurice between 1581 and 1612. Father of Augustus and Julius Henry
Maurice 1581–1612. joint rule with his brother Francis II. Uncle of the following two dukes
Augustus[7] 1619–1656. brother of the following duke
JuliusHendrikSaksenLauenburg.jpg Julius Henry
[8]
1656–1665. father of the following two dukes
Francis Erdmann 1665–1666. elder son of Julius Henry and his second wife.
JuliusFransSaksenLauenburg.jpg Julius Francis
[9]
1666–1689. younger son of Julius Henry and his third wife.
The male line of the Saxe-Lauenburgish Ascanians was extinguished in 1689. The House of Welf usurped the duchy,
preventing the succession of the legitimate heiress, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg, and resucceeded with its Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle line.
Welf Dynasty, Lüneburgish Line
Georg-Wilhelm.jpg George William 1689–1705. He invaded Saxe-Lauenburg with his troops, preventing the ascension of the legitimate heiress, Duchess Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg; this de facto takeover was imperially legitimised only in 1728. He was a great-great-grandson of Magnus I through his great-grandmother Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
Welf Dynasty, Hanoverian Line
GeorgeIKneller1714.jpg George I Louis 1705–1727. He was a nephew and son-in-law of George William.
George II of Great Britain-01.jpg George II Augustus 1727–1760. in 1728 Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II Augustus with Saxe-Lauenburg, finally legitimating his grandfather's de facto takeover.
George III 1762.jpg George III 1760–1814. De facto deposed by various occupations in the Napoleonic Wars, he was a grandson of George II Augustus
George III's son, Regent George agreed to pass Saxe-Lauenburg to his Danish cousin in a general territorial realignment at the Congress of Vienna
Oldenburg Dynasty, Main Line
Fiedrichvidenmark.jpg Frederick I 1814–1839. Frederick was a great-grandson of Duke George II Augustus on both sides, through his mother Caroline and through his father. The official colours of Saxe-Lauenburg were changed to red and gold.
Christianviiidenmark.jpg Christian I 1839–1848. half nephew of the former, but not related to the Saxe-Lauenburgish Welfs, however, great-great-great-great-grandson of Duke Francis I
Friedrichviidenmark.jpg Frederick II 1848–1863. son of the former
Oldenburg Dynasty, Glücksburg Line
Christian IX - Konge til Danmark.png Christian II 1863–1864. deposed in Second Schleswig War and resigned by Treaty of Vienna. His mother was a cousin of Frederick I and Christian I as well as maternally and paternally a great-granddaughter of George II Augustus.
colspan="4" Hohenzollern Dynasty, Berlin Line
Wilhelm I Friedrich Ludwig.jpg William 1865–1876. In 1865, the Estates of Saxe-Lauenburg offered him the ducal throne and he accepted. He was a great-great-great-great-grandson of Duke George William. The coat-of-arms of Saxe-Lauenburg was changed to the colours red and silver, with a border in the Prussian colours of black and white. Both duke and estates decided to merge Saxe-Lauenburg into Prussia, as district Duchy of Lauenburg, with effect from 1 July 1876.

The Ascanian Dynasty continued in Saxe-Lauenburg until 1689, but after the Lauenburgish line had finally lost the Saxon Electorate to the Wittenberg line in 1356 and failed to obtain the succession in the Electorate after 1422, recognition of the Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg as Dukes of Saxony waned.

Duci de Saxa-Wittenberg[modificare | modificare sursă]

For the predecessor see the section Ascanian or younger Duchy of Saxony above in this article.

Image Name Date Notes
Albrecht 2 Sachsen.jpg Albert II 1296–1298. 1260–1296 joint rule of Saxony with his brother John I, Duke of Saxony (till 1282) and thereafter with the latter's sons Albert III, Eric I, and John II. In 1296 uncle and nephews had partitioned Saxony into the Wittenberg line, where Albert II continued as sole ruler, and the Lauenburg line, where his nephews ruled jointly (see section Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg above in this article). Father of the following duke
Rudolf-I-von-Sachsen.jpg Rudolph I 1298-1356 rivalled as Saxon Prince-Elector by his cousin John II.
In January 1356 the Golden Bull confirmed Rudolf I as the legitimate Saxon Prince-Elector, thus the rulers of Saxe-Wittenberg are conceived as Electors of Saxony since (see section Electors of Saxony below in this article).

Duci Wettin de Saxonia[modificare | modificare sursă]

Duci Albertini de Saxonia[modificare | modificare sursă]

The Albertines were a junior branch of the Wettin dynasty of Electors of Saxony (section below), who ruled in Northern Thuringia and Southern Meissen until they replaced the senior "Ernestine" branch as Electors and rulers of most Saxon territory in 1547.

Image Name Date Notes
Herzog-Albrecht-der-Beherzt.jpg Albert the Bold 1464-1500. Younger son of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. Divided the Saxon lands, including Thuringia and Meissen, with his brother Ernest in 1485.
Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Bildnis des Herzogs Georg von Sachsen (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin).jpg George the Bearded 1500-1539 Son of Albert. Opposed Martin Luther.
Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 042.jpg Henry IV the Pious 1539-1541 Brother of George. Introduced Lutheranism to Albertine Saxony.
Moritz Sachsen.JPG Maurice 1541-1553, Son of Henry IV. Became Elector 1547.

Duci Ernestini de Saxonia[modificare | modificare sursă]

Following their displacement by the Albertines, the Ernestine branch of the Wettins continued to rule in southern Thuringia as "Dukes of Saxony", but their lands eventually split up into many different tiny "Ernestine duchies". Of these, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Altenburg lasted until 1918. This article does not list the subsequent Ernestine dukes.

Electori a Saxoniei[modificare | modificare sursă]

The Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the right to participate in the election of a Holy Roman Emperor to the Duke of Saxony in the Saxe-Wittenberg line. For the predecessor see the section Ascanian Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg above in this article.

Image Name Began Ended Notes
Ascanian Dynasty
Rudolf-I-von-Sachsen.jpg Rudolf I 10 January 1356 11 March 1356 Since 1298 Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg.
Rudolf-II-von-Sachsen.jpg Rudolf II 11 March 1356 6 December 1370 Son of Rudolf I.
Wenceslaus
Wenzel
6 December 1370 15 May 1388 Brother of Rudolf II.
Rudolf III 15 May 1388 9 June 1419 Son of Wenceslaus.
Albrecht III Sachsen Wittenberg.jpg Albert III
Albrecht II
9 June 1419 12 November 1422 Brother of Rudolf III.
Wettin Dynasty
Friedrich4.jpg Frederick I
Friedrich I
6 January 1423 4 January 1428 Nicknamed "the Warlike." After the Wittenberg line of the Ascanians became extinct, the Electorate was given to Frederick, Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia, of the House of Wettin.
80px Frederick II
Friedrich II
4 January 1428 7 September 1464 Nicknamed "the Gentle". Son of Frederick I. Ruled jointly in Saxony with his brothers, but was the sole holder of the Electorate. Father of Ernest and Albert, founders of the Ernestine (continuing below) and Albertine Saxon lines (see section Albertine Dukes of Saxony above in this article).
Ernestine Line
80px Ernest
Ernst
7 September 1464 26 August 1486 Son of Frederick II, divided Saxony with his brother Albert, taking Wittenberg, northern Meissen, and southern Thuringia. Inherited Thuringia in 1482 and ruled it jointly with Albert until 1485.
Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 097.jpg Frederick III
Friedrich III
26 August 1486 5 May 1525 Nicknamed "the Wise." Son of Ernest. Protector of Martin Luther, but a life-long Catholic.
Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Kurfürst Johann der Beständige von Sachsen.jpg John
Johann
5 May 1525 16 August 1532 Nicknamed "the Steadfast." Brother of Frederick III. Legally established Lutheranism in his territories in 1527.
Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 044.jpg John Frederick I
Johann Friedrich I
16 August 1532 19 May 1547 Nicknamed "the Magnanimous." Son of John the Steadfast. Deprived of his Electorate by Emperor Charles V for his role in the Schmalkaldic War. Died 1554.
Albertine Line
Moritz Sachsen.JPG Maurice
Moritz
4 June 1547 11 July 1553 Second cousin of John Frederick, grandson of Albert. Though a Lutheran, allied with Emperor Charles V against the Schmalkaldic League. Gained the Electorate for the Albertine line in 1547 after Charles V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg.
Lucas Cranach d. J. 004.jpg Augustus I
August I
11 July 1553 12 February 1586 Brother of Maurice. Recognized as Elector by the ousted John Frederick in 1554.
Christian I of Saxony with sword.jpg Christian I 12 February 1586 25 September 1591 Son of Augustus I.
Kurfürst Christian II. von Sachsen (Porträt).jpg Christian II 25 September 1591 23 June 1611 Son of Christian I.
Johann Georg I Saxony.jpg John George I
Johann Georg I
23 June 1611 8 October 1656 Brother of Christian II, ruled during the Thirty Years' War, during which he was at times allied with the Emperor and at times with the King of Sweden.
Johan Georg II Johann Fink, vor 1675.jpg John George II
Johann Georg II
8 October 1656 1 September 1680 Son of John George I.
1647 Johann Georg.JPG John George III
Johann Georg III
1 September 1680 22 September 1691 Son of John George II.
Jan Jerzy IV 4.jpg John George IV
Johann Georg IV
22 September 1691 27 April 1694 Son of John George III.
Stolpen-August.der.Starke.JPG Frederick Augustus I
Friedrich August I
27 April 1694 1 February 1733 Brother of John George IV. Converted to Catholicism 1697 in order to compete for the crown of Poland. Took the Polish crown 1697, opposed by Stanisław Leszczyński 1704, forced to renounce the throne 1706, returned as monarch 1709 until his death. Called "the Strong".
King Augustus III of Poland.jpg Frederick Augustus II
Friedrich August II
1 February 1733 5 October 1763 Son of Frederick Augustus I. Converted to Catholicism 1712. King of Poland 1734-1763. Called ""the Fat" or (in Poland) "the Saxon".
Anton Raphael Mengs 006.jpg Frederick Christian
Friedrich Christian
5 October 1763 17 December 1763 Son of Frederick Augustus II, raised Catholic.
Fryderyk August I.jpg Frederick Augustus III
Friedrich August III
17 December 1763 20 December 1806 Son of Frederick Christian. His Electorate ceased with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and he became King of Saxony. Called "the Just."

Regi ai Saxoniei[modificare | modificare sursă]

Imagine Nume Început domnie Sfârșit domnie Note
Dinastia Wettin
Fryderyk August I.jpg Frederic Augustus I
Friedrich August I
20 decembrie 1806 5 mai 1827 Duce de Varșovia 1807-1813. Supranumit "cel Drept"
Anton-sachsen.jpg Anton
Anton
5 mai 1827 6 iunie 1836 Frate cu Frederic Augustus I.
Friedrich August II of Saxony.jpg Frederic Augustus II
Friedrich August II
6 iunie 1836 9 august 1854 Nepot al lui Anton.
Louis Ferdinand von Rayski - König Johann von Sachsen, 1870.jpg Ioan
Johann
9 august 1854 29 octombrie 1873 Frate cu Frederic Augustus II.
König Albert von Sachsen (Porträt).jpg Albert
Albert
29 octombrie 1873 19 iunie 1902 Fiu al lui Ioan. Supranumit "cel Bun"
Georg von Sachsen 1895.jpg George
Georg
19 iunie 1902 15 octombrie 1904 Frate cu Albert.
Friedrich August III. von Sachsen.jpg Frederick Augustus III
Friedrich August III
15 octombrie 1904 13 noiembrie 1918 Fiu al lui George. Ultimul rege al Saxoniei. Și-a pierdut tronul la revoluțiile germane în 1918.

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ His wife was Sophia of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) and they had Catharina de Saxe-Lauenburg (mar. John VII of Werle, then John IV, Duke of Mecklenburg) as daughter.
  2. ^ His wife was Adelheid of Pomerania; their daughter, Sophie of Saxe-Lauenburg (before 1428–1473), was married to Gerhard VII, Duke of Jülich-Berg.
  3. ^ His wife was Dorothea of Brandenburg (ca. 1446 – March 1519, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg). Their children were Eric of Saxe-Lauenburg (1472 – 20 October 1522; Eric I as Prince-Bishop of Münster, Eric II as Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim) and Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg (m. ca. 1420, d. 1462; mother of Eric II, Duke of Pomerania).
  4. ^ He was married on 8 February 1540 to Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg (Freiberg, 2 May 1515 – 18 July 1592, Buxtehude), daughter of Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg. Their children were Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg (Henry II as Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, Henry III as Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, and Henry IV as Prince-Bishop of Paderborn), Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (m. Wenceslaus III Adam, Duke of Cieszyn) and Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg-Ratzeburg (m. Henry III, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Dannenberg]).
  5. ^ His wife was Princess Sophia of Sweden.
  6. ^ His wife was Mary of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) (1566–1626; daughter of Julius, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel)); their daughters were Juliane of Saxe-Lauenburg (26 December 1589 – 1 December 1630; m. 1 August 1627 to Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg) and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg (24 May 1601 – 1 February 1660; m. 23 May 1624 to Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg).
  7. ^ His wife, Elisabeth Sophie of Holstein-Gottorp, was the daughter of John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Their daughter was Anna-Elisabetha of Saxe-Lauenburg (23 August 1624–1688; m. 2 April 1665 to William Christoph, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg).
  8. ^ He was married first to Anne of Ostfriesland, then (on 27 February 1628) to Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg (13 July 1589–24 December 1629; daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and mother of Duke Francis Erdmann), and finally (on 18 August 1632) to Anna Magdalene, Baroness Popel von Lobkowitz (d. 7 September 1668), who ascended with him to the throne on 18 January 1656. She was mother of Duke Julius Francis.
  9. ^ His wife was Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach (15 April 1650 – 23 November 1681; daughter of Christian Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach); their daughters were Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]