James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
Salt la: Navigare, căutare

James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher este o frază în limba engleză, folosită ca un exemplu de ambiguitate lexicală, cât și pentru evidențierea rolului semnelor de punctuație,[1] care sunt menite să redea în scris intonația,[2] accentul și pauzele la care omul apelează în timpul vorbirii.[3]

Utilizare[modificare | modificare sursă]

Fraza poate servi drept exercițiu lingvistic, care ar cere să se aplice semnele de punctuație potrivite în cadrul frazei, astfel încât aceasta din urmă să aibă sens.[1][2][4][5][6]

De asemenea, fraza constituie un bun exemplu pentru studierea ambiguității semantice a cuvântului „had” și deosebirea dintre a menționa și a folosi un cuvânt[7] (a se vedea articolul în engleză Use–mention distinction). În același timp, marchează efectul pe care îl poate avea complexitatea limbii asupra percepției vorbitorului.[8]

Substantivele James și John, cât și expresia „a better effect on the teacher” sunt adeseori înlocuite de alte substantive, respectiv expresie. De asemenea, while poate fi schimbat cu where sau whereas[1][9].

Dezlegare[modificare | modificare sursă]

Fraza capătă sens atunci când este completată cu semnele de punctuație potrivite:

James, while John had had "had", had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher[10].

Traducerea aproximativă în română sună așa:

James, după ce John folosise „had”, folosi „had had”; „had had” a fost mai bine apreciat de către învățător.

Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă]

Referințe[modificare | modificare sursă]

  1. ^ a b c Magonet, Jonathan (2004). A rabbi reads the Bible (ed. 2nd). SCM-Canterbury Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780334029526. http://books.google.com/books?id=Wl9qT9T7aRYC&pg=PA19&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22&lr=#PPA19,M1. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „You may remember an old classroom test in English language. What punctuation marks do you have to add to this sentence so as to make sense of it?” 
  2. ^ a b Dundes, Alan; Carl R. Pagter (1987). When you're up to your ass in alligators: more urban folklore from the paperwork empire (ed. Illustrated). Wayne State University Press. p. 135. ISBN 0814318673. http://books.google.com/books?id=McgoMZSznBgC&pg=PA135&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „The object of this and similar tests is to make sense of a series of words by figuring out the correct intonation pattern.” 
  3. ^ Hudson, Grover (1999). Essential introductory linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 372. ISBN 0631203044. http://books.google.com/books?id=5RB07Jb4tREC&pg=PA372&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „Writing is secondary to speech, in history and in the fact that speech and not writing is fundamental to the human species.” 
  4. ^ Amon, Mike (28 ianuarie 2004). „GADFLY”. Financial Times. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-20149031_ITM. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „HAD up to here? So were readers of last week's column, invited to punctuate "Smith where Jones had had had had had had had had had had had the examiners approval."” 
  5. ^ Jackson, Howard (2002). Grammar and Vocabulary: A Resource Book for Students. Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 0415231701. http://books.google.com/books?id=wPq6bSd-CwEC&pg=PA123&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „Finally, verbal humour is often an ingredient of puzzles. As part of an advertising campaign for its educational website <learn.co.uk>, the Guardian (for 3 january 2001) included the following familiar grammatical puzzle.” 
  6. ^ 3802 — Operator Jumble
  7. ^ Lecercle, Jean-Jacques (1990). The violence of language (ed. Illustrated). Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 0415034310. http://books.google.com/books?id=sNUNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA86&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22#PPA86,M1. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „Suppose I decide that I wish to make up a sentence containing eleven occurrences of the word 'had' in a row ...” 
  8. ^ Hollin, Clive R. (1995). Contemporary Psychology: An Introduction (ed. Illustrated). Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 0748401911. http://books.google.com/books?id=DTpm_oT51aQC&pg=PA34&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Accesat la 30 aprilie 2009. „Do readers make use of the ways in which sentences are structured?” 
  9. ^ Reichenbach, Hans (1947) Elements of symbolic logic. London: Collier-MacMillan. Exercise 3-4, p.405; solution p.417.
  10. ^ «Problem C: Operator Jumble». 31st ACM International Collegiate Programming Conference, 2006—2007.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]