|Nume complet||Eliel Saarinen|
|Naționalitate||Finlanda Statele Unite|
|Data nașterii||20 august 1873|
|Locul nașterii||Rantasalmi, Finlanda|
|Data decesului||1 iulie 1950|
|Locul decesului||Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, Statele Unite ale Americii)|
|Clădiri semnificative||Gara Centrală din Helsinki
Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (n. 20 august 1873, Rantasalmi, Finlanda – d. 1 iulie 1950, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, Statele Unite ale Americii) a fost un arhitect finlandez - american, faimos pentru clădirile sale Art Nouveau construite la începutul secolului 20.
Biografie[modificare | modificare sursă]
Finlanda[modificare | modificare sursă]
Saarinen a studiat arhitectura la Helsinki la Teknillinen korkeakoulu, Universitatea tehnologică din Helsinki. Între 1896 și 1905 a format un parteneriat arhitectural cu Herman Gesellius și Armas Lindgren la firma purtând numele lor de familie, Gesellius, Lindgren & Saarinen.
Prima sa operă arhitecturală majoră a fost pavilionul finlandez de la World Fair din 1900, lucrare care a expus o extraordinară convergență de influențe stilistice, așa cum sunt arhitectura tradițională finlandeză în lemn, neo-goticul britanic și Jugendstil. Maniera stilistică timpurie a lui Saarinen a emulat în Scandinavia, fiind denumită ulterior stil romantic naţional, culminând în proiectul Gării Centrale din Helsinki, designată în 1904 și construită între 1910 și 1914.
From 1910–15 he worked on the extensive city-planning project of Munksnäs-Haga and later published a book on the subject. In January 1911 he became a consultant in city planning for Reval, Estonia and was invited to Budapest to advise in city development. In 1912, a brochure written by Saarinen about the planning problems of Budapest was published. In April 1913 he received the first place award in an international competition for his plan of Reval. During 1917-18 Saarinen worked on the city-plan for greater Helsinki. He also designed the Finnish markka banknotes introduced in 1922.
On March 6, 1904 Saarinen married Louise (Loja) Gesellius, a sculptor in Helsinki, and the younger sister of Herman Gesellius. They had a daughter Eva-Lisa (Pipsan) on March 31, 1905 and a son Eero on August 20, 1910.
Statele Unite ale Americii[modificare | modificare sursă]
Eliel Saarinen moved to the United States in 1923 after his noted competition entry for the Tribune Tower in Chicago, Illinois. Although Saarinen's entry won second place and was not built in Chicago, his design was fully realized in the 1929 Gulf Building in Houston, Texas. Saarinen first settled in Evanston, Illinois, where he worked on his scheme for the development of the Chicago lake front. In 1924 he became a visiting professor at the University of Michigan.
In 1925 George Gough Booth asked him to design the campus of Cranbrook Educational Community, intended as an American equivalent to the Bauhaus. Saarinen taught there and became president of the Cranbrook Academy of Art in 1932. Among his student-collaborators were Ray Eames (then Ray Kaiser) and Charles Eames; Saarinen influenced their subsequent furniture design.
He became a professor in the University of Michigan's Architecture Department; today a professorship at Michigan's A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning is named for him, and the College holds an annual lecture series in his honor.
His son, Eero (1910–1961), became one of the most important American architects of the mid-20th century, as one of the leaders of the International style. Saarinen's student Edmund N. Bacon achieved national prominence as Executive Director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission from 1949 to 1970.
Clădiri[modificare | modificare sursă]
- Finnish Pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900), Paris
- Hvitträsk, Eliel Saarinen's home in Kirkkonummi 1902
- Clubhouse of Luther factory, Tallinn, Estonia 1905
- Helsinki Central railway station 1905–1914
- National Museum of Finland in Helsinki 1902–1904
- Lahti Town Hall, Lahti, Finland 1911
- Mutual Reserve Association Building, Tallinn, Estonia 1912
- Vyborg railway station (today in Russia) 1904–1913 (destroyed 1941)
- Saint Paul's Church, Tartu, Estonia 1917
- First Christian Church, Columbus, Indiana 1942
- Kleinhans Music Hall, Buffalo, New York; designed in collaboration with his son Eero Saarinen
- Original Wing of Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa 1945–1948
- Cranbrook Educational Community, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan
- Christ Church Lutheran, Minneapolis, Minnesota 1949
- The Fenton Community Center, Fenton, Michigan
Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]
- A&E with Richard Guy Wilson, Ph.D.,(2000). America's Castles: Newspaper Moguls, Pittock Mansion, Cranbrook House & Gardens, The American Swedish Institute. A&E Television Network.
- Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher (2002). AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3
- Merkel, Jayne (2005). Eero Saarinen. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 071484277X
- Pelkonen, Eeva-Liisa (2006). Eero Saarinen. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300112823
- Roman, Antonio (2003). Eero Saarinen. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568983409
- Saarinen, Aline B. (ed) (1968). Eero Saarinen on His Work. New Haven: Yale University Press
- Serraino, Pierluigi (2006). Saarinen, 1910-1961: a Structural Expressionist. KöLn: Taschen. ISBN 3822836451
Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]